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1.6: Exercises

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    Review Questions for Chapter 1:

    Multiple Choice

    1) Which of the following foods is NOT made by fermentation?

    1. beer
    2. bread
    3. cheese
    4. orange juice

    2) Who is considered the “father of Western medicine”?

    1. Marcus Terentius Varro
    2. Thucydides
    3. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    4. Hippocrates

    3) Who proposed that swamps might harbor tiny, disease-causing animals too small to see?

    1. Thucydides
    2. Marcus Terentius Varro
    3. Hippocrates
    4. Louis Pasteur

    4) Which of the following individuals argued in favor of the theory of spontaneous generation?

    1. Francesco Redi
    2. Louis Pasteur
    3. John Needham
    4. Lazzaro Spallanzani

    5) Which of the following scientists experimented with raw meat, maggots, and flies in an attempt to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation?

    1. Aristotle
    2. Lazzaro Spallanzani
    3. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    4. Francesco Redi

    6) Which of the following individuals is credited for definitively refuting the theory of spontaneous generation using broth in swan-neck flask?

    1. Aristotle
    2. Jan Baptista van Helmont
    3. John Needham
    4. Louis Pasteur

    7) Who was the first to describe “cells” in dead cork tissue?

    1. Hans Janssen
    2. Zaccharias Janssen
    3. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    4. Robert Hooke

    8) Which of the following individuals did not contribute to the establishment of cell theory?

    1. Girolamo Fracastoro
    2. Matthias Schleiden
    3. Robert Remak
    4. Robert Hooke

    9) Who is the probable inventor of the compound microscope?

    1. Girolamo Fracastoro
    2. Zaccharias Janssen
    3. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    4. Robert Hooke

    10) Who was the first to observe “animalcules” under the microscope?

    1. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    2. Ötzi the Iceman
    3. Marcus Terentius Varro
    4. Robert Koch

    11) Which of the following developed a set of postulates for determining whether a particular disease is caused by a particular pathogen?

    1. John Snow
    2. Robert Koch
    3. Joseph Lister
    4. Louis Pasteur

    12) Which of the following was NOT a kingdom in Linnaeus’s taxonomy?

    1. animal
    2. mineral
    3. protist
    4. plant

    13) Which of the following is a correct usage of binomial nomenclature?

    1. Homo Sapiens
    2. homo sapiens
    3. Homo sapiens
    4. Homo Sapiens

    14) Which scientist proposed adding a kingdom for protists?

    1. Carolus Linnaeus
    2. Carl Woese
    3. Robert Whittaker
    4. Ernst Haeckel

    15) Which of the following types of microorganisms is photosynthetic?

    1. yeast
    2. virus
    3. helminth
    4. alga

    16) Which of the following is a prokaryotic microorganism?

    1. helminth
    2. protozoan
    3. cyanobacterium
    4. mold

    17) Which of the following is acellular?

    1. virus
    2. bacterium
    3. fungus
    4. protozoan

    18) Which of the following is a type of fungal microorganism?

    1. bacterium
    2. protozoan
    3. alga
    4. yeast

    19) Which of the following is not a subfield of microbiology?

    1. bacteriology
    2. botany
    3. clinical microbiology
    4. virology


    20) Thucydides is known as the father of _______________.

    21) Researchers think that Ötzi the Iceman may have been infected with _____ disease.

    22) The process by which microbes turn grape juice into wine is called _______________.

    23) A microscope that uses multiple lenses is called a _________ microscope.

    24) The assertion that “life only comes from life” was stated by Louis Pasteur in regard to his experiments that definitively refuted the theory of ___________.

    25) John Snow is known as the Father of _____________.

    26) The ____________ theory states that disease may originate from proximity to decomposing matter and is not due to person-to-person contact.

    27) The scientist who first described cells was _____________.

    28) In binomial nomenclature, an organism’s scientific name includes its ________ and __________.

    29) Whittaker proposed adding the kingdoms ________ and ________ to his phylogenetic tree.

    30) __________ are organisms without membrane-bound nuclei.

    31) ______ are microorganisms that are not included in phylogenetic trees because they are acellular.

    32) A ________ is a disease-causing microorganism.

    33) Multicellular parasitic worms studied by microbiologists are called ___________.

    34) The study of viruses is ___________.

    35) The cells of prokaryotic organisms lack a _______.

    Short Answer

    36) What did Thucydides learn by observing the Athenian plague?

    37) Why was the invention of the microscope important for microbiology?

    38) What are some ways people use microbes?

    39) Why is Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’s work much better known than that of Zaccharias Janssen?

    40) Why did the cork cells observed by Robert Hooke appear to be empty, as opposed to being full of other structures?

    41) Explain in your own words Pasteur’s swan-neck flask experiment.

    42) Explain why the experiments of Needham and Spallanzani yielded in different results even though they used similar methodologies.

    43) How did the explanation of Virchow and Remak for the origin of cells differ from that of Schleiden and Schwann?

    44) What were the differences in mortality rates due to puerperal fever that Ignaz Semmelweis observed? How did he propose to reduce the occurrence of puerperal fever? Did it work?

    45) What is a phylogenetic tree?

    46) Which of the five kingdoms in Whittaker’s phylogenetic tree are prokaryotic, and which are eukaryotic?

    47) What molecule did Woese and Fox use to construct their phylogenetic tree?

    48) Name some techniques that can be used to identify and differentiate species of bacteria.

    49) Describe the differences between bacteria and archaea.

    50) Name three structures that various protozoa use for locomotion.

    51) Describe the actual and relative sizes of a virus, a bacterium, and a plant or animal cell.

    Critical Thinking

    52) Explain how the discovery of fermented foods likely benefited our ancestors.

    53) What evidence would you use to support this statement: Ancient people thought that disease was transmitted by things they could not see.

    54) What would the results of Pasteur’s swan-neck flask experiment have looked like if they supported the theory of spontaneous generation?

    55) Why was the work of Snow so important in supporting the germ theory?

    56) Why is using binomial nomenclature more useful than using common names?

    57) Label the three Domains found on modern phylogenetic trees.

    The phylogenetic Tree of Life. A drawing of branching lines. The central line at the bottom branches into two main branches. On the left branch is a purple branch that contains the following sub-branches: Green filamentous bacteria, Gram positives, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Spirocheres. The branch to the right subdivides into a red and a brown branch. The brown branch contains the following sub-branches: Smile molds, Plants, Fungi and Animals. The red branch contains the following sub-branches: Thermoproteus, Methanococcus, Methanobacterium, and Halophiles.

    58) Contrast the behavior of a virus outside versus inside a cell.

    59) Where would a virus, bacterium, animal cell, and a prion belong on this chart?

    A bar along the bottom indicates size of various objects. At the far right is a from egg at approximately 1 mm. To the left are a human egg and a pollen grain at approximately 0.1 mm. Next is a red blood cell at just under 10 µm. Next is a mitochondrion at approximately 1 µm. Next are proteins which range from 5-10 nm. Next are lipids which range from 2-5 nm. Next is C60 (fullerene molecule) which is approximately 1 nm. Finally, atoms are approximately 0.1 nm.

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