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Chapter 14 BSC 3271 Learning Outcomes
- Describe the three levels of immune protection, including major components, and whether they are specific or non-specific.
- Describe the "jobs" of neutrophils and macrophages (covered in lecture, but not explicitly in book) as well as the roles of phagocytes in general.
- Describe the process of phagocytosis, including the roles of phagosome, lysosome, and phagolysosome.
- Explain the role of opsonins in phagocytosis.
- Describe Toll-like receptors and their action in relation to pathogen-associated (a.k.a. microbe-associated) molecular patterns (PAMPs a.k.a. MAMPs).
- Describe the general mechanism of action and targets of interferon and complement.
- Explain the process of fever production, including the role of pyrogens and the hypothalamus.
- Provide three benefits of fever in fighting infection.
- Define antigen.
- Distinguish between natural/artificial and passive/active immunity.
- Compare and contrast the humoral and cell-mediated specific immune responses, including cells involved and targets.
- Explain the concept of clonal slection in lymphocyte development.
- Explain the purposes of the two major histocompatibility complexes (MHC I, MHC II).
- Describe the possible immunological effects of antibodies on free antigens, pathogens, or abnormal cells.
- Identify the different types of antibodies and their major roles in the immune response.
- Define antigen presenting cell (APC).
- Describe the activation of B cells by T-helper cells, including the roles of macrophages (or other APCs), MHC II, antigen, plasma cells, memory cells.
- Describe the primary and secondary immune responses, including the immunoglobulins that dominate during each.
- Explain (diagram) the interactions between immune cells and proteins involved in recognizing and removing foreign antigens from the body.
- Describe the different functions of CD4 cells (helper T) and CD8 cells (cytotoxic T).
- Describe the immunologic principle behind vaccination.
- Give the origin of the term vaccination.
- Explain the concept of herd immunity.
- Describe the types of vaccine and give pros and cons of each type.
- Identify the vaccines for tetanus, Haemophilus influenza (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), Influenzavirus, and Varicella-Zoster Virus as subunit, inactivated, attenuated, or toxoid.
- Explain what antivenin, antitoxin, and antiserum are and provide examples of medical conditions in which each of these would be used.
- Explain how the number of antigens in vaccines has changed over time and why vaccination does not “overload” children’s immune systems
Thumbnail: "Anthrax bacteria (green) being swallowed by an immune system cell" by ZEISS Microscopy is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0