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14: Immunology

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    Chapter 14 BSC 3271 Learning Outcomes

    • Describe the three levels of immune protection, including major components, and whether they are specific or non-specific.
    • Describe the "jobs" of neutrophils and macrophages (covered in lecture, but not explicitly in book) as well as the roles of phagocytes in general.
    • Describe the process of phagocytosis, including the roles of phagosome, lysosome, and phagolysosome.
    • Explain the role of opsonins in phagocytosis.
    • Describe Toll-like receptors and their action in relation to pathogen-associated (a.k.a. microbe-associated) molecular patterns (PAMPs a.k.a. MAMPs).
    • Describe the general mechanism of action and targets of interferon and complement.
    • Explain the process of fever production, including the role of pyrogens and the hypothalamus.
    • Provide three benefits of fever in fighting infection.
    • Define antigen.
    • Distinguish between natural/artificial and passive/active immunity.
    • Compare and contrast the humoral and cell-mediated specific immune responses, including cells involved and targets.
    • Explain the concept of clonal slection in lymphocyte development.
    • Explain the purposes of the two major histocompatibility complexes (MHC I, MHC II).
    • Describe the possible immunological effects of antibodies on free antigens, pathogens, or abnormal cells.
    • Identify the different types of antibodies and their major roles in the immune response.
    • Define antigen presenting cell (APC).
    • Describe the activation of B cells by T-helper cells, including the roles of macrophages (or other APCs), MHC II, antigen, plasma cells, memory cells.
    • Describe the primary and secondary immune responses, including the immunoglobulins that dominate during each.
    • Explain (diagram) the interactions between immune cells and proteins involved in recognizing and removing foreign antigens from the body.
    • Describe the different functions of CD4 cells (helper T) and CD8 cells (cytotoxic T).
    • Describe the immunologic principle behind vaccination.
    • Give the origin of the term vaccination.
    • Explain the concept of herd immunity.
    • Describe the types of vaccine and give pros and cons of each type.
    • Identify the vaccines for tetanusHaemophilus influenza (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), Influenzavirus, and Varicella-Zoster Virus as subunit, inactivated, attenuated, or toxoid.
    • Explain what antivenin, antitoxin, and antiserum are and provide examples of medical conditions in which each of these would be used.
    • Explain how the number of antigens in vaccines has changed over time and why vaccination does not “overload” children’s immune systems

    Thumbnail: "Anthrax bacteria (green) being swallowed by an immune system cell" by ZEISS Microscopy is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0