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Chapter 1 Exercises

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    Review Questions for Chapter 1:


    Multiple Choice


    1) Which of the following foods is NOT made by fermentation?

    1. beer
    2. bread
    3. cheese
    4. orange juice


    2) Who is considered the “father of Western medicine”?

    1. Marcus Terentius Varro
    2. Thucydides
    3. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    4. Hippocrates


    3) Who proposed that swamps might harbor tiny, disease-causing animals too small to see?

    1. Thucydides
    2. Marcus Terentius Varro
    3. Hippocrates
    4. Louis Pasteur


    4) Which of the following individuals argued in favor of the theory of spontaneous generation?

    1. Francesco Redi
    2. Louis Pasteur
    3. John Needham
    4. Lazzaro Spallanzani


    5) Which of the following scientists experimented with raw meat, maggots, and flies in an attempt to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation?

    1. Aristotle
    2. Lazzaro Spallanzani
    3. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    4. Francesco Redi


    6) Which of the following individuals is credited for definitively refuting the theory of spontaneous generation using broth in swan-neck flask?

    1. Aristotle
    2. Jan Baptista van Helmont
    3. John Needham
    4. Louis Pasteur


    7) Who was the first to describe “cells” in dead cork tissue?

    1. Hans Janssen
    2. Zaccharias Janssen
    3. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    4. Robert Hooke


    8) Which of the following individuals did not contribute to the establishment of cell theory?

    1. Girolamo Fracastoro
    2. Matthias Schleiden
    3. Robert Remak
    4. Robert Hooke


    9) Who is the probable inventor of the compound microscope?

    1. Girolamo Fracastoro
    2. Zaccharias Janssen
    3. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    4. Robert Hooke


    10) Who was the first to observe “animalcules” under the microscope?

    1. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    2. Ötzi the Iceman
    3. Marcus Terentius Varro
    4. Robert Koch


    11) Which of the following developed a set of postulates for determining whether a particular disease is caused by a particular pathogen?

    1. John Snow
    2. Robert Koch
    3. Joseph Lister
    4. Louis Pasteur


    12) Which of the following was NOT a kingdom in Linnaeus’s taxonomy?

    1. animal
    2. mineral
    3. protist
    4. plant


    13) Which of the following is a correct usage of binomial nomenclature?

    1. Homo Sapiens
    2. homo sapiens
    3. Homo sapiens
    4. Homo Sapiens


    14) Which scientist proposed adding a kingdom for protists?

    1. Carolus Linnaeus
    2. Carl Woese
    3. Robert Whittaker
    4. Ernst Haeckel


    15) Which of the following types of microorganisms is photosynthetic?

    1. yeast
    2. virus
    3. helminth
    4. alga


    16) Which of the following is a prokaryotic microorganism?

    1. helminth
    2. protozoan
    3. cyanobacterium
    4. mold


    17) Which of the following is acellular?

    1. virus
    2. bacterium
    3. fungus
    4. protozoan


    18) Which of the following is a type of fungal microorganism?

    1. bacterium
    2. protozoan
    3. alga
    4. yeast


    19) Which of the following is not a subfield of microbiology?

    1. bacteriology
    2. botany
    3. clinical microbiology
    4. virology


    20) EMB agar is a medium used in the identification and isolation of pathogenic bacteria. It contains digested meat proteins as a source of organic nutrients. Two indicator dyes, eosin and methylene blue, inhibit the growth of gram-positive bacteria and distinguish between lactose fermenting and nonlactose fermenting organisms. Lactose fermenters form metallic green or deep purple colonies, whereas the nonlactose fermenters form completely colorless colonies. EMB agar is an example of which of the following?
    1. a selective medium only
    2. a differential medium only
    3. a selective medium and a chemically defined medium
    4. a selective medium, a differential medium, and a complex medium

    21) Haemophilus influenzae must be grown on chocolate agar, which is blood agar treated with heat to release growth factors in the medium. H. influenzae is described as ________.

    1. an acidophile
    2. a thermophile
    3. an obligate anaerobe
    4. fastidious



    22) Thucydides is known as the father of _______________.


    23) Researchers think that Ötzi the Iceman may have been infected with _____ disease.


    24) The process by which microbes turn grape juice into wine is called _______________.


    25) A microscope that uses multiple lenses is called a _________ microscope.


    26) The assertion that “life only comes from life” was stated by Louis Pasteur in regard to his experiments that definitively refuted the theory of ___________.


    27) John Snow is known as the Father of _____________.


    28) The ____________ theory states that disease may originate from proximity to decomposing matter and is not due to person-to-person contact.


    29) The scientist who first described cells was _____________.


    30) In binomial nomenclature, an organism’s scientific name includes its ________ and __________.


    31) Whittaker proposed adding the kingdoms ________ and ________ to his phylogenetic tree.


    32) __________ are organisms without membrane-bound nuclei.


    33) ______ are microorganisms that are not included in phylogenetic trees because they are acellular.


    34) A ________ is a disease-causing microorganism.


    35) Multicellular parasitic worms studied by microbiologists are called ___________.


    36) The study of viruses is ___________.


    37) The cells of prokaryotic organisms lack a _______.


    38) Staphylococcus aureus can be grown on multipurpose growth medium or on mannitol salt agar that contains 7.5% NaCl. The bacterium is ________.


    39) Blood agar contains many unspecified nutrients, supports the growth of a large number of bacteria, and allows differentiation of bacteria according to hemolysis (breakdown of blood). The medium is ________ and ________.


    40) Rogosa agar contains yeast extract. The pH is adjusted to 5.2 and discourages the growth of many microorganisms; however, all the colonies look similar. The medium is ________ and ________.


    Short Answer


    41) What did Thucydides learn by observing the Athenian plague?


    42) Why was the invention of the microscope important for microbiology?


    43) What are some ways people use microbes?


    44) Why is Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’s work much better known than that of Zaccharias Janssen?


    45) Why did the cork cells observed by Robert Hooke appear to be empty, as opposed to being full of other structures?


    46) Explain in your own words Pasteur’s swan-neck flask experiment.


    47) Explain why the experiments of Needham and Spallanzani yielded in different results even though they used similar methodologies.


    48) How did the explanation of Virchow and Remak for the origin of cells differ from that of Schleiden and Schwann?


    49) What were the differences in mortality rates due to puerperal fever that Ignaz Semmelweis observed? How did he propose to reduce the occurrence of puerperal fever? Did it work?


    50) What is a phylogenetic tree?


    51) Which of the five kingdoms in Whittaker’s phylogenetic tree are prokaryotic, and which are eukaryotic?


    52) What molecule did Woese and Fox use to construct their phylogenetic tree?


    53) Name some techniques that can be used to identify and differentiate species of bacteria.


    54) Describe the differences between bacteria and archaea.


    55) Name three structures that various protozoa use for locomotion.


    56) Describe the actual and relative sizes of a virus, a bacterium, and a plant or animal cell.


    57) What is the major difference between an enrichment culture and a selective culture?


    Critical Thinking


    58) Explain how the discovery of fermented foods likely benefited our ancestors.


    59) What evidence would you use to support this statement: Ancient people thought that disease was transmitted by things they could not see.


    60) What would the results of Pasteur’s swan-neck flask experiment have looked like if they supported the theory of spontaneous generation?


    61) Why was the work of Snow so important in supporting the germ theory?


    62) Why is using binomial nomenclature more useful than using common names?


    63) Label the three Domains found on modern phylogenetic trees.

    The phylogenetic Tree of Life. A drawing of branching lines. The central line at the bottom branches into two main branches. On the left branch is a purple branch that contains the following sub-branches: Green filamentous bacteria, Gram positives, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Spirocheres. The branch to the right subdivides into a red and a brown branch. The brown branch contains the following sub-branches: Smile molds, Plants, Fungi and Animals. The red branch contains the following sub-branches: Thermoproteus, Methanococcus, Methanobacterium, and Halophiles.

    64) Contrast the behavior of a virus outside versus inside a cell.


    65) Where would a virus, bacterium, animal cell, and a prion belong on this chart?

    A bar along the bottom indicates size of various objects. At the far right is a from egg at approximately 1 mm. To the left are a human egg and a pollen grain at approximately 0.1 mm. Next is a red blood cell at just under 10 µm. Next is a mitochondrion at approximately 1 µm. Next are proteins which range from 5-10 nm. Next are lipids which range from 2-5 nm. Next is C60 (fullerene molecule) which is approximately 1 nm. Finally, atoms are approximately 0.1 nm.


    66) A microbiology instructor prepares cultures for a gram-staining practical laboratory by inoculating growth medium with a gram-positive coccus (nonmotile) and a gram-negative rod (motile). The goal is to demonstrate staining of a mixed culture. The flask is incubated at 35 °C for 24 hours without aeration. A sample is stained and reveals only gram-negative rods. Both cultures are known facultative anaerobes. Give a likely reason for success of the gram-negative rod. Assume that the cultures have comparable intrinsic growth rates.

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