This book is dedicated to the students of Butte College and worldwide. The Biology Department faculty at Butte College have created this book as part of our effort to help make education more affordable. Our goal was to create a book that helps students understand how human systems function and how humans fit into the world around us.
In a few chapters, we have incorporated more inclusive gender-neutral pronouns, such as singular they/their/them. Around 1795, the language authorities Lindley Murray, Joseph Priestly, and Hugh Blair, amongst others, campaigned against pronoun irregularities in pronoun use, such as lack of agreement in gender and number. Without coining words, this can only be done in the third-person singular by use of compound terms like “his or her”. Grammarians in 1879, 1922, 1931, 1957, and the 1970s have accepted “they” as a singular term that could be used in place of “he” or “he or she,” though sometimes limiting it to informal constructions. Others in 1795, 1825, 1863, 1898, 1926, and 1982 argued against it for various reasons. And whatever the grammarians might argue, people have been using the singular “they” for about the last 600 years, though (as mentioned earlier) it can only be applied in certain cases. If new gender-neutral pronouns are not adopted, we are sure that singular “they” will still be a point of contention for centuries to come. For further information on the use of singular “they/them/their” throughout the centuries, see the large body of information that Henry Churchyard has compiled on this subject (LGBTQ+ Resource center; July 2020).
We wish the very best for all our students as they move forward in their goals!
Biology is a field that has many new vocabulary terms. These are bolded throughout the text. Students are encouraged to create flashcards or use other strategies to learn these terms. Knowing the vocabulary terms in a chapter will help make the content easier to understand.
Technical support: LibreTexts Libraries, UC Davis
This project could not have been possible without the voluminous support of Dr. Delmar Larsen and Henry Agnew. They helped us overcome many technical difficulties during the creation of this book.
Attributions and Acknowledgements: CK-12 foundation and Openstax
This book is a product of a curation of the OER content from many sources. Butte College Biology Department thanks the following authors:
- Barbara Akre
- Dana Desonie
- Douglas Wilkin
- Dr. Katherine Harris
- Jean Brainard
- Jessica Harwood
- Laura Guerin
- Lensyl Urbano
- Marcos Gridi-Papp
- Milton Huling Ph.D.
- Niamh Gray-Wilson
- Rachel Henderson
Parts of this book are an adaptation from the CK-12 Flexbook. CK-12 Foundation is a non-profit organization with a mission to reduce the cost of textbook materials for the K-12 market both in the U.S. and worldwide. Using an open-source, collaborative, and web-based compilation model, CK-12 pioneers and promotes the creation and distribution of high-quality, adaptive online textbooks that can be mixed, modified and printed (i.e., the FlexBook® textbooks). Copyright © 2017 CK-12 Foundation, www.ck12.org
The names “CK-12” and “CK12” and associated logos and the terms “FlexBook®” and “FlexBook Platform®” (collectively “CK-12 Marks”) are trademarks and service marks of CK-12 Foundation and are protected by federal, state, and international laws. Any form of reproduction of this book in any format or medium, in whole or in sections must include the referral attribution link http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (placed in a visible location) in addition to the following terms.
Except as otherwise noted, all CK-12 Content (including CK-12 Curriculum Material) is made available to Users in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC 3.0) License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/3.0/), as amended and updated by Creative Com- mons from time to time (the “CC License”), which is incorporated herein by this reference. Complete terms can be found at http://www.ck12.org/about/ terms-of-use.
Printed: January 5, 2017
AUTHOR: Jean Brainard, Ph.D.
EDITOR: Rachel Henderson, Ph.D.
CONTRIBUTOR: Rachel Henderson, Ph.D.
Financial support: The Academic Senate for California Community Colleges Open Educational Resource Initiative (ASCCC OERI)
- Award number 54 (2019)
- Award number 207 (2020)
The Academic Senate for California Community Colleges Open Educational Resources Initiative (OERI) was funded by the California legislature in trailer bill language during the summer of 2018. The OERI’s mission is to reduce the cost of educational resources for students by expanding the availability and adoption of high quality Open Educational Resources (OER). The OERI facilitates and coordinates the curation and development of OER texts, ancillaries, and support systems. In addition, the OERI supports local OER implementation efforts through the provision of professional development, technical support, and technical resources.
The information in this resource is intended solely for use by the user who accepts full responsibility for its use. Although the author(s) and ASCCC OERI have made every effort to ensure that the information in this resource is accurate, openly licensed, and accessible at press time, the author(s) and ASCCC OERI do not assume and hereby disclaim any liability to any party for any loss, damage, or disruption caused by errors or omissions, whether such errors or omissions result from negligence, accident, or any other cause.
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