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Biology LibreTexts

A. Monosaccharaides and Disaccharides

Skills to Develop

  • define a sugar
  • apply knowledge about reactions at carbonyl carbons of aldehyde and ketones in the formation of hemiacetals/hemiketals and acetals/ketals from organic chemistry to draw mechanics showing cyclization of aldoses and ketoses and (hemiacetal/hemiketal formation) and of polymerization of aldoses and ketones to form dissacharide and polysaccharide (acetal/ketals). 
  • draw open chain, Haworth (planar), and puckered (nonplanar) representations of 6 member cyclic sugars
  • know the names of common trioses, ribose (5C) and hexoses and draw open chain, Haworth, and puckered representations of each
  • differentiate between enantiomers, diastereomers and anomers of the hexoses
  • explain the difference between reducing and nonreducing dissacharides
  • draw the structure and name common sugar derivatives of the hexoses

The link below is an extraordinary and free resource on glycobiology.  It defines the word "glycan" as a "generic term for any sugar or assembly of sugars, in free form or attached to another molecule" and "is used interchangeably ... with saccharide or carbohydrate."