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Biology LibreTexts

7.E: The Eukaryotic Cell (Exercises)

 

These are homework exercises to accompany Kaiser's "Microbiology" TextMap. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are defined as any microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell (unicellular), cell clusters or no cell at all (acellular). This includes eukaryotes, such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes. Viruses and prions, though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied.

7.1: The Cytoplasmic Membrane

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. Match the following descriptions with the best answer.

    _____ The movement of water across a membrane from an area of higher water concentration (lower solute concentration) to lower water concentration (higher solute concentration). (ans)

    _____ The net movement of gases or small uncharge polar molecules across a phospholipid bilayer membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. No metabolic energy is required. (ans)

    _____ A transport where the cell uses transport proteins such as antiporters or symporters and metabolic energy to transport substances across the membrane against the concentration gradient. (ans)

    _____ If the net flow of water is out of a cell, the cell is in ________________ environment. (ans)

    _____ If the net flow of water is into a cell, the cell is in ________________ environment. (ans)

    _____ Theingestion of dissolved materials by endocytosis whereby the cytoplasmic membrane invaginates and pinches off placing small droplets of fluid in a vesicle. (ans)

    _____ The process by which a cell releases waste products or specific secretion products by the fusion of a vesicle with the cytoplasmic membrane. (ans)

    1. active transport
    2. passive diffusion
    3. osmosis
    4. exocytosis
    5. pinocytosis
    6. phagocytosis
    7. a hypotonic
    8. a hypertonic
    9. an isotonic

7.2: The Cell Wall

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. State which eukaryotic organisms possess a cell wall and which lack a cell wall. (ans)
  2. The function of the cell wall in those eukaryotic cells that possess one is to ____________________. (ans)

7.5: Ribosomes

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. Briefly describe and state the function of eukaryotic ribosomes. (ans)

7.6: The Cytoskeleton

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. State 3 different functions associated with the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. (ans)

7.8: The Endosymbiotic Theory

  1. Parallel membranous tubules and flattened sacs with ribosomes attached. Functions in protein synthesis, production of new membrane, and transport of these proteins and membrane to other locations within the cell. This best describes the:
    A. the Golgi apparatus.
    B. smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
    C. rough endoplasmic reticulum.
    D. the nucleus.
  2. Consists of 3-20 flattened and stacked saclike structures called cisternae. Modifies certain proteins and lipids received from the ER and packages these molecules into vesicles for transport to other parts of the cell or secretion from the cell. This best describes:
    A. the Golgi apparatus.
    B. smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
    C. rough endoplasmic reticulum.
    D. the nucleus.
  3. Surrounded by two membranes. The outer membrane forms the exterior of the organelle while the inner membrane is arranged in a series of folds called cristae . Produces ATP through oxidative phosphorylation . This describes:
    A. the Golgi apparatus.
    B. mitochondria.
    C. chloroplasts.
    D. the endoplasmic reticulum.
  4. Membrane-enclosed spheres that contain powerful digestive enzymes that function to digest materials that enter by endocytosis. This best describes:
    A. peroxisomes.
    B. mitochondria.
    C. proteasomes.
    D. lysosomes.
  5. A fluid phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins and glycoproteins. Determines what goes in and out of the cell. This best describes the:
    A. cell wall.
    B. cytoplasmic membrane.
    C. endomembranesystem.
    D. cytoskeleton.
  6. Long and few in number and consisting of 9 fused pairs of protein microtubuleswith side arms of the motor molecule dynein. Originate from a centrioleand function in locomotion. This best describes:
    A. cilia.
    B. flagella.
    C. the cytoskeleton.

Solution

1=C; 2=A; 3=B; 4=D; 5=B; 6=B