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5.E: Virulence Factors that Promote Colonization (Exercises)

These are homework exercises to accompany Kaiser's "Microbiology" TextMap. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are defined as any microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell (unicellular), cell clusters or no cell at all (acellular). This includes eukaryotes, such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes. Viruses and prions, though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied.

5.0: virulence factors that promote bacterial colonization of the host

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. List 6 virulence factors that promote bacterial colonization of the host.
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5.1: The Ability to Use Motility and Other Means to Contact Host Cells

Questions

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. State why it might be of an advantage for a bacterium trying to colonize the bladder or the intestines to be motile. (ans)
  2. Briefly describe how the spirochete Treponema pallidum that causes syphilis uses its motility to disseminate from the initial infection site to other parts of the body. (ans)
  3. Give a brief description of how a bacterium may use toxins to better disseminate from one host to another. (ans)
  4. Multiple Choice (ans)

5.2: The Ability to Adhere to Host Cells and Resist Physical Removal

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. Briefly describe 3 different mechanisms by which bacteria can adhere to host cells and colonize. Name 2 bacteria that utilize each mechanism and name an infection that each bacterium causes.
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  2. Define biofilm and state 5 benefits associated with bacteria living as a community within a biofilm. (ans)
  3. By activating different genes, Neisseria gonorrhoeae is able to rapidly alter the amino acid sequence of the adhesive tip of its pili. Why might this be an advantage? (ans)
  4. Multiple Choice (ans)

5.3: The Ability to Invade Host Cells

Questions

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. Briefly describe a mechanism by which invasins enable certain bacteria to enter host cells. (ans)
  2. Briefly describe how a type 3 secretion system might be used to invade and survive inside host cells. (ans)
  3. Multiple Choice (ans)

5.4: The Ability to Compete for Nutrients

Questions

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these question. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. State why the ability to compete for iron is important for bacteria to cause disease. (ans)
  2. Multiple Choice (ans)

5.5: The Ability to Resist Innate Immune Defenses

Questions

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. Describe unenhanced attachment as it relates to phagocytosis. (ans)
  2. Describe enhanced attachment as it relates to phagocytosis. (ans)
  3. Describe ingestion as it relates to phagocytosis. (ans)
  4. Describe destruction as it relates to phagocytosis. (ans)
  5. State 4 different body defense functions of the body's complement pathways. (ans)
  6. Multiple Choice (ans)

 

5.5B

Questions

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. Briefly describe 3 ways capsules may enable bacteria to resist phagocytic engulfment. (ans)
  2. State 2 mechanisms other than capsules that certain bacteria might use to resist phagocytic engulfment. (ans)
  3. The vaccine for Haemophilus influenzae type b contains capsular material from this bacterium. The body recognizes this capsular material as foreign and produces antibodies against it. One part of the antibody is able to bind to the capsular material while another part has a shape that fits a receptor on phagocytic cells. Why might this protect the person from infection with this bacterium? (ans)
  4. Multiple Choice (ans)

Questions

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. State 4 different ways bacteria might be able to resist phagocytic destruction once engulfed. (ans)

5.6: The Ability to Evade Adaptive Immune Defenses

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these question. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. State 4 four ways the antibody molecules made during adaptive immunity protect us against bacteria. (ans)
  2. Briefly describe 3 ways a bacterium might evade our immune defenses and name a bacterium that does each.
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  3. Multiple Choice (ans)