- define a sugar
- apply knowledge about reactions at carbonyl carbons of aldehyde and ketones in the formation of hemiacetals/hemiketals and acetals/ketals from organic chemistry to draw mechanics showing cyclization of aldoses and ketoses and (hemiacetal/hemiketal formation) and of polymerization of aldoses and ketones to form dissacharide and polysaccharide (acetal/ketals).
- draw open chain, Haworth (planar), and puckered (nonplanar) representations of 6 member cyclic sugars
- know the names of common trioses, ribose (5C) and hexoses and draw open chain, Haworth, and puckered representations of each
- differentiate between enantiomers, diastereomers and anomers of the hexoses
- explain the difference between reducing and nonreducing dissacharides
- draw the structure and name common sugar derivatives of the hexoses
The link below is an extraordinary and free resource on glycobiology. It defines the word "glycan" as a "generic term for any sugar or assembly of sugars, in free form or attached to another molecule" and "is used interchangeably ... with saccharide or carbohydrate."
- Essentials of Glycobiology, 2nd edition, is available online.