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Biology LibreTexts

Mammal Organs (Heart, Brain, Kidney, Eye)

  • Page ID
  • Heart

    Human Heart Model

    1. External structures
    2. The right atrium and right ventricle have been opened. The right atrioventricular and semilunar valves can be seen.
    3. The left atrium and ventricle have been opened. The left atrioventricular and semilunar valves can be seen.


    Sheep Heart

    After exploring the heart model (above) obtain a sheep heart. If the heart has not been previously cut, it may be necessary to remove the pericardial membrane surrounding the heart. Next, insert scissors into the superior vena cava and cut through the right atrium and right ventricle to the apex of the heart. Next, insert the scissors into the left atrium and cut through the left atrium and ventricle to meet your previous cut at the apex. As you open the heart, you will need to insert a scalpel and cut tissue holding the two halves together.

    Identify these structures.

    • Aortic arch
    • Pulmonary trunk
    • Left ventricle
    • Right ventricle
    • Superior vena cava
    • Inferior vena cava
    • Right atrioventricular valve (tricuspid)
    • Left atrioventricular valve (mitral)
    • Chordae tendineae
    • Semilunar valves


    Sheep Brain

    Obtain a sheep brain and note the following structures before you begin your dissection. It will be necessary to remove the pituitary and surrounding membranes to view the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.

    • Cerebelllum
    • Cerebrum
    • Medulla oblongata
    • Midbrain
    • Olfactory bulb 
    • Optic chiasma
    • Optic nerve
    • Pituitary gland
    • Pons
    • Spinal cord

    Cut the brain in half so that each half so that a left and right half are produced. Identify the following structures.

    • Cerebellum
    • Cerebrum
    • Corpus callosum
    • Medulla oblongata 
    • Midbrain
    • Olfactory bulb
    • Optic chaisma
    • Pituitary gland
    • Pons
    • Spinal cord



    Sheep Kidney

    Cut a sheep kidney lengthwise and identify the following structures.

    • Cortex
    • Medulla
    • Renal pyramid
    • Renal pelvis
    • Ureters



    Sheep Eye

    Cut a sheep eye in half so that the anterior half containing the cornea is separate from the posterior half that contains the retina and optic nerve. This can be done by cutting a hole in the side of the eye and then using scissors to cut completely around the eye.  Identify the structures listed below. The function of each of these structures is described in the BIO 102 notes on sensory systems.

    • Optic nerve
    • Retina
    • Choroid
    • Sclera
    • Lens
    • Ciliary muscle
    • Cornea
    • Iris
    • pupil