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Biology LibreTexts

D. mTOR and Nutrient Signaling

Skills to Develop

  • Describe the structure of mTOR Complex I and II;
  • Describe how rapamycin inhibits mTORC1;
  • Draw a cartoon of a generic protein kinase showing how its activity and specificity is regulated by activation and catalytic loops along with other protein binding partners;
  • Describe the structural differences between mTORC1 kinase and other kinases.
  • List typical substrates of mTORC1 and mTORC2;
  • Draw cartoons to show how Leu interacts with sestrin 2 and how this interaction activates mTORC1;
  • Describe how mTORC1 is recruited to lysosomal membranes and regulated by leucine through sestrin2, GATOR (GAP) proteins, Rag (small G) proteins, and Ragulator (GEF) proteins;
  • Explain how interactions of mTORC1 with Tsc 2/1 (GAP) proteins and Rheb (small G) proteins regulate mTORC1;
  • Describe how mTORC1 kinase activity is regulated by insulin through Akt and growth factors through MAP kinases;
  • Describe the different effects in metabolism mediated by AMPK and mTORC1