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Biology LibreTexts

2D: Protein Folding - in Vivo and in Vitro

Skills to Develop

  • differentiate between thermodynamic (equilibrium) and kinetic (timed) approaches to the study of protein folding reactions
  • describe techniques to study transient (kinetic) and long-lived (thermodynamic) intermediates in protein folding
  • describe the following intermediates in protein folding:  molten globule, X-Pro isomers; Disulfide bond intermediates
  • interpret spectral and chromatographic data from protein folding studies and use this to determine or explain a mechanism for folding
  • describe properties of folded, unfolded, molten globule, and intrinsically disordered proteins
  • explain the difference between the environments for protein folding when performed in vitro and in vivo
  • state the role of molecular chaperones in in vivo protein folding
  • describe differences in disulfide bond occurrence in cytoplasmic and extracellular proteins

Thumbnail: Structure of human hemoglobin. The proteins α and β subunits are in red and blue, and the iron-containing heme groups in green. From PDB: 1GZX​. Image used with permission (GNU; Proteopedia Hemoglobin).