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14.E: Cell-Mediated Immunity (Exercises)

These are homework exercises to accompany Kaiser's "Microbiology" TextMap. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are defined as any microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell (unicellular), cell clusters or no cell at all (acellular). This includes eukaryotes, such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes. Viruses and prions, though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied.

14.1: Cell-Mediated Immunity: An Overview

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. State three different ways by which cell-mediated immunity protects the body.
    1. (ans)
    2. (ans)
    3. (ans)
  2. Define gene translocation. (ans)
  3. Relate gene translocation to each T-lymphocyte being able to produce a T-cell receptor with a unique shape. (ans)
  4. Define the following:
    1. combinatorial diversity (ans)
  5. In terms of humoral immunity, discuss what is meant by anamnestic response. (ans)
  6. Briefly describe why there is a heightened secondary response during anamestic response. (ans)

14.2: Activating Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T- Lymphocytes

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. The role of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) in body defense.
    1. State from what cells cytotoxic T-lymphocytes are derived. (ans)
    2. Describe how they can react with and destroy virus-infected cells, cells containing intracellular bacteria, and cancer cells without harming normal cells. (Indicate the role of following: TCR, CD4, MHC-I, and peptides from endogenous antigens.) (ans)
    3. State the mechanism by which cytotoxic T-lymphocytes kill the cells to which they bind. (Indicate the role of the following: perforins, granzymes, caspases, and macrophages in the process.) (ans)
  2. Multiple Choice (ans)

14.3: Activating Macrophages and NK Cells

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. Viruses and malignant transformation can sometimes interfere with the ability of the infected cell or tumor cell to express MHC-I molecules. This enables them to resist destruction by cytoyoxic T-lymphocytes. However the body is still able to kill these infected cells and tumor cells. Describe how. (ans)
  2. Describe how TH1 effector cells are able to interact with and activate macrophages. (ans)
  3. Multiple Choice (ans)

14.4: Stimulating Cells to Secrete Cytokines

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. Name 4 cytokines that regulate adaptive immune responses. (ans)
  2. Name 3 cytokines that regulate innate immune responses by triggering an inflammatory response. (ans)
  3. Name 2 cytokines that stimulate hematopoiesis. (ans)
  4. Name the group of cytokines that regulates innate immunity by preventing translation of viral mRNA and by degrading both viral and host cell RNA. (ans)