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7.2: Osseous Tissue (Bone Tissue)

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    Osseous Tissue (Bone Tissue)

    Bone tissue (osseous tissue) is a hard and mineralized connective tissue. Bone tissue is made up of different types of bone cells. Osteoblasts and osteocytes are involved in the formation and mineralization of bone; osteoclasts are involved in the resorption of bone tissue. Modified (flattened) osteoblasts become the lining cells that form a protective layer on the bone surface. The mineralized matrix of bone tissue has an organic component of mainly collagen called ossein and an inorganic component of bone mineral made up of various salts. Bone tissue is a mineralized tissue of two types: compact bone (cortical) and spongy bone (trabecular or cancellous).

    This illustration shows a cross section of a cranial bone, constructed somewhat like a sandwich. The topmost and bottommost layers are the thin, translucent, periosteum. The upper and lower periosteum cover an upper and lower layer of compact bone, respectively. The compact bone is solid, with each layer occupying about one tenth of the thickness of the cranial bone. The majority of the cross section is occupied by the spongy bone, or diploe, sandwiched between the upper and lower compact bone. The spongy bone contains many crisscrossing threads of bone. Dark air spaces occur between the threads, giving the bone a porous appearance, much like that of a sponge or Swiss cheese.

    Above: A cross section of bone tissue shows the outer layers are composed of compact bone and the inner layers are composed of spongy bone. A membrane composed of dense connective tissue called the periosteum forms the outermost layer of bone.