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18: Transcriptional Regulation (eukaryotes)

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    • 18.1: Eukaryotic Gene Regulation
    • 18.2: Regulatory Elements in Evolution
      Mutations can occur in both cis-elements and trans-factors; both can result in altered patterns of gene expression. If an altered pattern of gene expression results in a selective advantage (or at least do not produce a major disadvantage), they may be selected and maintained in future populations. They may even contribute to the evolution of new species. An example of a sequence change in an enhancer is found in the Pitx gene.
    • 18.3: Additional Levels of Regulating Transcription
    • 18.4: Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes
      Results of this experiment provided the evidence that even very different cells of an organism contain the same genes. In fact, in any multicellular eukaryotic organism, every cell contains the same DNA (genes). Therefore, the different cell types in an organism differ not in which genes they contain, but which sets of genes they express! Looked at another way, cells differentiate when they turn on new genes and turn off old ones.
    • 18.5: Transgenic organisms
      Transgenic organisms contain foreign DNA that has been introduced using biotechnology. Foreign DNA (the transgene) is defined here as DNA from another species, or else recombinant DNA from the same species that has been manipulated in the laboratory then reintroduced. The terms transgenic organism and genetically modified organism (GMO) are generally synonymous.

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