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Biology LibreTexts

11: Evaluating Recombinant DNA

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    • 11.1: Cloning DNA - Plasmid Vectors
      Many bacteria contain extra-chromosomal DNA elements called plasmids. These are usually small (a few 1000 bp), circular, double stranded molecules that replicate independently of the chromosome and can be present in high copy numbers within a cell. In the wild, plasmids can be transferred between individuals during bacterial mating and are sometimes even transferred between different species. Plasmids often carry genes for pathogenicity and drug-resistance.
    • 11.2: DNA Analysis - Gel Electrophoresis
      A solution of DNA is colorless, and except for being viscous at high concentrations, is visually indistinguishable from water. Therefore, techniques such as gel electrophoresis have been developed to detect and analyze DNA.

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