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15.14: Chapter 14 exercises

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  • Multiple Choice

    Antibodies are produced by ________.

    A. plasma cells
    B. T cells
    C. bone marrow
    D. B cells

    Cellular adaptive immunity is carried out by ________.

    A. B cells
    B. T cells
    C. bone marrow
    D. neutrophils

    A single antigen molecule may be composed of many individual ________.

    A. T-cell receptors
    B. B-cell receptors
    C. MHC II
    D. epitopes

    Which class of molecules is the most antigenic?

    A. polysaccharides
    B. lipids
    C. proteins
    D. carbohydrates


    Match the antibody class with its description.

    ___IgA A. This class of antibody is the only one that can cross the placenta.
    ___IgD B. This class of antibody is the first to appear after activation of B cells.
    ___IgE C. This class of antibody is involved in the defense against parasitic infections and involved in allergic responses.
    ___IgG D. This class of antibody is found in very large amounts in mucus secretions.
    ___IgM E. This class of antibody is not secreted by B cells but is expressed on the surface of naïve B cells.

    Fill in the Blank

    There are two critically important aspects of adaptive immunity. The first is specificity, while the second is ________.

    ________ immunity involves the production of antibody molecules that bind to specific antigens.

    The heavy chains of an antibody molecule contain ________ region segments, which help to determine its class or isotype.

    The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the ________ sites of an antibody.

    Short Answer

    What is the difference between humoral and cellular adaptive immunity?

    What is the difference between an antigen and a hapten?

    Describe the mechanism of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    Multiple Choice

    MHC I molecules present

    A. processed foreign antigens from proteasomes.
    B. processed self-antigens from phagolysosome.
    C. antibodies.
    D. T cell antigens.

    MHC II molecules present

    A. processed self-antigens from proteasomes.
    B. processed foreign antigens from phagolysosomes.
    C. antibodies.
    D. T cell receptors.

    Which type of antigen-presenting molecule is found on all nucleated cells?

    A. MHC II
    B. MHC I
    C. antibodies
    D. B-cell receptors

    Which type of antigen-presenting molecule is found only on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells?

    A. MHC I
    B. MHC II
    C. T-cell receptors
    D. B-cell receptors

    Fill in the Blank

    MHC molecules are used for antigen ________ to T cells.

    MHC II molecules are made up of two subunits (α and β) of approximately equal size, whereas MHC I molecules consist of a larger α subunit and a smaller subunit called ________.

    Critical Thinking

    Which mechanism of antigen presentation would be used to present antigens from a cell infected with a virus?

    Which pathway of antigen presentation would be used to present antigens from an extracellular bacterial infection?

    Multiple Choice

    What is a superantigen?

    A. a protein that is highly efficient at stimulating a single type of productive and specific T cell response
    B. a protein produced by antigen-presenting cells to enhance their presentation capabilities
    C. a protein produced by T cells as a way of increasing the antigen activation they receive from antigen-presenting cells
    D. a protein that activates T cells in a nonspecific and uncontrolled manner

    To what does the TCR of a helper T cell bind?

    A. antigens presented with MHC I molecules
    B. antigens presented with MHC II molecules
    C. free antigen in a soluble form
    D. haptens only

    Cytotoxic T cells will bind with their TCR to which of the following?

    A. antigens presented with MHC I molecules
    B. antigens presented with MHC II molecules
    C. free antigen in a soluble form
    D. haptens only

    A ________ molecule is a glycoprotein used to identify and distinguish white blood cells.

    A. T-cell receptor
    B. B-cell receptor
    C. MHC I
    D. cluster of differentiation

    Name the T helper cell subset involved in antibody production.

    A. TH1
    B. TH2
    C. TH17
    D. CTL

    Fill in the Blank

    A ________ T cell will become activated by presentation of foreign antigen associated with an MHC I molecule.

    A ________ T cell will become activated by presentation of foreign antigen in association with an MHC II molecule.

    A TCR is a protein dimer embedded in the plasma membrane of a T cell. The ________ region of each of the two protein chains is what gives it the capability to bind to a presented antigen.

    Peripheral tolerance mechanisms function on T cells after they mature and exit the ________.

    Both ________ and effector T cells are produced during differentiation of activated T cells.

    Short Answer

    What is the basic difference in effector function between helper and cytotoxic T cells?

    What necessary interactions are required for activation of helper T cells and activation/effector function of cytotoxic T cells?

    Multiple Choice

    Which of the following would be a T-dependent antigen?

    A. lipopolysaccharide
    B. glycolipid
    C. protein
    D. carbohydrate

    Which of the following would be a BCR?

    A. CD4
    B. MHC II
    C. MHC I
    D. IgD

    Which of the following does not occur during the lag period of the primary antibody response?

    A. activation of helper T cells
    B. class switching to IgG
    C. presentation of antigen with MHC II
    D. binding of antigen to BCRs

    Fill in the Blank

    ________ antigens can stimulate B cells to become activated but require cytokine assistance delivered by helper T cells.

    T-independent antigens can stimulate B cells to become activated and secrete antibodies without assistance from helper T cells. These antigens possess ________ antigenic epitopes that cross-link BCRs.

    Critical Thinking

    A patient lacks the ability to make functioning T cells because of a genetic disorder. Would this patient’s B cells be able to produce antibodies in response to an infection? Explain your answer.

    Multiple Choice

    A patient is bitten by a dog with confirmed rabies infection. After treating the bite wound, the physician injects the patient with antibodies that are specific for the rabies virus to prevent the development of an active infection. This is an example of:

    A. Natural active immunity
    B. Artificial active immunity
    C. Natural passive immunity
    D. Artificial passive immunity

    A patient gets a cold, and recovers a few days later. The patient's classmates come down with the same cold roughly a week later, but the original patient does not get the same cold again. This is an example of:

    A. Natural active immunity
    B. Artificial active immunity
    C. Natural passive immunity
    D. Artificial passive immunity


    Match each type of vaccine with the corresponding example.

    ___inactivated vaccine A. Weakened influenza virions that can only replicate in the slightly lower temperatures of the nasal passages are sprayed into the nose. They do not cause serious flu symptoms, but still produce an active infection that induces a protective adaptive immune response.
    ___live attenuated vaccine B. Tetanus toxin molecules are harvested and chemically treated to render them harmless. They are then injected into a patient’s arm.
    ___toxoid vaccine C. Influenza virus particles grown in chicken eggs are harvested and chemically treated to render them noninfectious. These immunogenic particles are then purified and packaged and administered as an injection.
    ___subunit vaccine D. The gene for hepatitis B virus surface antigen is inserted into a yeast genome. The modified yeast is grown and the virus protein is produced, harvested, purified, and used in a vaccine.

    Fill in the Blank

    A(n) ________ pathogen is in a weakened state; it is still capable of stimulating an immune response but does not cause a disease.

    ________ immunity occurs when antibodies from one individual are harvested and given to another to protect against disease or treat active disease.

    In the practice of ________, scabs from smallpox victims were used to immunize susceptible individuals against smallpox.

    Short answer

    Briefly compare the pros and cons of inactivated versus live attenuated vaccines.

    Multiple Choice

    For many uses in the laboratory, polyclonal antibodies work well, but for some types of assays, they lack sufficient ________ because they cross-react with inappropriate antigens.

    A. specificity
    B. sensitivity
    C. accuracy
    D. reactivity

    How are monoclonal antibodies produced?

    A. Antibody-producing B cells from a mouse are fused with myeloma cells and then the cells are grown in tissue culture.
    B. A mouse is injected with an antigen and then antibodies are harvested from its serum.
    C. They are produced by the human immune system as a natural response to an infection.
    D. They are produced by a mouse’s immune system as a natural response to an infection.

    Fill in the Blank

    When we inject an animal with the same antigen a second time a few weeks after the first, ________ takes place, which means the antibodies produced after the second injection will on average bind the antigen more tightly.

    When using mAbs to treat disease in humans, the mAbs must first be ________ by replacing the mouse constant region DNA with human constant region DNA.

    If we used normal mouse mAbs to treat human disease, multiple doses would cause the patient to respond with ________ against the mouse antibodies.

    A polyclonal response to an infection occurs because most antigens have multiple ________,

    Short Answer

    Describe two reasons why polyclonal antibodies are more likely to exhibit cross-reactivity than monoclonal antibodies.

    Critical Thinking

    Suppose you were screening produce in a grocery store for the presence of E. coli contamination. Would it be better to use a polyclonal anti-E. coli antiserum or a mAb against an E. coli membrane protein? Explain.

    Multiple Choice

    In an enzyme immunoassay, the enzyme

    A. is bound by the antibody’s antigen-binding site.
    B. is attached to the well of a microtiter plate.
    C. is conjugated to the suspect antigen.
    D. is bound to the constant region of the secondary antibody.

    When using an EIA to study microtubules or other structures inside a cell, we first chemically fix the cell and then treat the cells with alcohol. What is the purpose of this alcohol treatment?

    A. It makes holes in the cell membrane large enough for antibodies to pass.
    B. It makes the membrane sticky so antibodies will bind and be taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis.
    C. It removes negative charges from the membrane, which would otherwise repulse the antibodies.
    D. It prevents nonspecific binding of the antibodies to the cell membrane.

    In a lateral-flow pregnancy test, you see a blue band form on the control line and no band form on the test line. This is probably a ________ test for pregnancy.

    A. positive
    B. false-positive
    C. false-negative
    D. negative

    When performing an FEIA, the fluorogen replaces the ________ that is used in an EIA.

    A. antigen
    B. chromogenic substrate
    C. enzyme
    D. secondary antibody

    Fill in the Blank

    To detect antibodies against bacteria in the bloodstream using an EIA, we would run a(n) ________, which we would start by attaching antigen from the bacteria to the wells of a microtiter plate.

    Short Answer

    Why is it important in a sandwich ELISA that the antigen has multiple epitopes? And why might it be advantageous to use polyclonal antisera rather than mAb in this assay?

    The pregnancy test strip detects the presence of human chorionic gonadotrophin in urine. This hormone is initially produced by the fetus and later by the placenta. Why is the test strip preferred for this test rather than using either a direct or indirect ELISA with their more quantifiable results?

    Critical Thinking

    Label the primary and secondary antibodies, and discuss why the production of end product will be proportional to the amount of antigen.

    Ys are attached to a surface. The space between the Ys is covered in a black layer. A circle is attached to each Y. Another Y with a large purple circle is attached to each of the smaller circles which are attached to the Ys attached to the surface.


    Match each term with its description.

    ___sporadic disease A. the number of disease cases per 100,000 individuals
    ___endemic disease B. a disease in higher than expected numbers around the world
    ___pandemic disease C. the number of deaths from a disease for every 10,000 individuals
    ___morbidity rate D. a disease found occasionally in a region with cases occurring mainly in isolation from each other
    ___mortality rate E. a disease found regularly in a region

    Fill in the Blank

    The ________ collects data and conducts epidemiologic studies in the United States.

    Short Answer

    During an epidemic, why might the prevalence of a disease at a particular time not be equal to the sum of the incidences of the disease?

    In what publication would you find data on emerging/reemerging diseases in the United States?

    Critical Thinking

    Why might an epidemiological population in a state not be the same size as the number of people in a state? Use an example.

    Multiple Choice

    Which of the following would NOT be considered an emerging disease?

    A. Ebola hemorrhagic fever
    B. West Nile virus fever/encephalitis
    C. Zika virus disease
    D. Tuberculosis

    Which of the following would NOT be considered a reemerging disease?

    A. Drug-resistant tuberculosis
    B. Drug-resistant gonorrhea
    C. Malaria
    D. West Nile virus fever/encephalitis

    Which of the following factors can lead to reemergence of a disease?

    A. A mutation that allows it to infect humans
    B. A period of decline in vaccination rates
    C. A change in disease reporting procedures
    D. Better education on the signs and symptoms of the disease

    Why are emerging diseases with very few cases the focus of intense scrutiny?

    A. They tend to be more deadly
    B. They are increasing and therefore not controlled
    C. They naturally have higher transmission rates
    D. They occur more in developed countries

    Fill in the Blank

    The ________ collects data and conducts epidemiologic studies at the global level.

    Critical Thinking

    An Atlantic crossing by boat from England to New England took 60–80 days in the 18th century. In the late 19th century the voyage took less than a week. How do you think these time differences for travel might have impacted the spread of infectious diseases from Europe to the Americas, or vice versa?


    Match each type of epidemiology study with its description.

    ___experimental A. examination of past case histories and medical test results conducted on patients in an outbreak
    ___analytical B. examination of current case histories, interviews with patients and their contacts, interpretation of medical test results; frequently conducted while outbreak is still in progress
    ___prospective C. use of a set of test subjects (human or animal) and control subjects that are treated the same as the test subjects except for the specific treatment being studied
    ___descriptive D. observing groups of individuals to look for associations with disease
    ___retrospective E. a comparison of a cohort of individuals through the course of the study

    Match each pioneer of epidemiology with his or her contribution.

    ___Florence Nightingale A. determined the source of a cholera outbreak in London
    ___Robert Koch B. showed that surgical wound infection rates could be dramatically reduced by using carbolic acid to disinfect surgical tools, bandages, and surgical sites
    ___Joseph Lister C. compiled data on causes of mortality in soldiers, leading to innovations in military medical care
    ___John Snow D. developed a methodology for conclusively determining the etiology of disease

    Fill in the Blank

    ________occurs when an infected individual passes the infection on to other individuals, who pass it on to still others, increasing the penetration of the infection into the susceptible population.

    A batch of food contaminated with botulism exotoxin, consumed at a family reunion by most of the members of a family, would be an example of a ________ outbreak.

    Short Answer

    What activity did John Snow conduct, other than mapping, that contemporary epidemiologists also use when trying to understand how to control a disease?

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