Skip to main content
Biology LibreTexts

15.1: Chapter 1 exercises

  • Page ID
    31876
  • 1.1: What Our Ancestors Knew

    Multiple Choice

    Exercise

    Which of the following foods is NOT made by fermentation?

    1. beer
    2. bread
    3. cheese
    4. orange juice

    D

    Exercise

    Who is considered the “father of Western medicine”?

    1. Marcus Terentius Varro
    2. Thucydides
    3. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    4. Hippocrates

    D

    Who was the first to observe “animalcules” under the microscope?

    1. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    2. Ötzi the Iceman
    3. Marcus Terentius Varro
    4. Robert Koch

    A

    Who proposed that swamps might harbor tiny, disease-causing animals too small to see?

    1. Thucydides
    2. Marcus Terentius Varro
    3. Hippocrates
    4. Louis Pasteur

    B

    Fill in the Blank

    Thucydides is known as the father of _______________.

    scientific history

    Researchers think that Ötzi the Iceman may have been infected with _____ disease.

    Lyme

    The process by which microbes turn grape juice into wine is called _______________.

    fermentation

    Short Answer

    What did Thucydides learn by observing the Athenian plague?

    Why was the invention of the microscope important for microbiology?

    What are some ways people use microbes?

    Critical Thinking

    Explain how the discovery of fermented foods likely benefited our ancestors.

    What evidence would you use to support this statement: Ancient people thought that disease was transmitted by things they could not see.

    1.4: A Systematic Approach

    Multiple Choice

    Which of the following was NOT a kingdom in Linnaeus’s taxonomy?

    1. animal
    2. mineral
    3. protist
    4. plant

    C

    Which of the following is a correct usage of binomial nomenclature?

    1. Homo Sapiens
    2. homo sapiens
    3. Homo sapiens
    4. Homo Sapiens

    C

    Which scientist proposed adding a kingdom for protists?

    1. Carolus Linnaeus
    2. Carl Woese
    3. Robert Whittaker
    4. Ernst Haeckel

    D

    Which of the following is NOT a domain in Woese and Fox’s phylogenetic tree?

    1. Plantae
    2. Bacteria
    3. Archaea
    4. Eukarya

    A

    Which of the following is the standard resource for identifying bacteria?

    1. Systema Naturae
    2. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology
    3. Woese and Fox’s phylogenetic tree
    4. Haeckel’s General Morphology of Organisms

    B

    Short Answer

    What is a phylogenetic tree?

    Which of the five kingdoms in Whittaker’s phylogenetic tree are prokaryotic, and which are eukaryotic?

    What molecule did Woese and Fox use to construct their phylogenetic tree?

    Name some techniques that can be used to identify and differentiate species of bacteria.

    Critical Thinking

    Why is using binomial nomenclature more useful than using common names?

    Label the three Domains found on modern phylogenetic trees.

    Figure

    1.5: Types of Microorganisms

    Multiple Choice

    Which of the following types of microorganisms is photosynthetic?

    1. yeast
    2. virus
    3. helminth
    4. alga

    D

    Which of the following is a prokaryotic microorganism?

    1. helminth
    2. protozoan
    3. cyanobacterium
    4. mold

    C

    Which of the following is acellular?

    1. virus
    2. bacterium
    3. fungus
    4. protozoan

    A

    Which of the following is a type of fungal microorganism?

    1. bacterium
    2. protozoan
    3. alga
    4. yeast

    D

    Which of the following is not a subfield of microbiology?

    1. bacteriology
    2. botany
    3. clinical microbiology
    4. virology

    B

    Fill in the Blank

    A ________ is a disease-causing microorganism.

    pathogen

    Multicellular parasitic worms studied by microbiologists are called ___________.

    helminths

    The study of viruses is ___________.

    virology

    The cells of prokaryotic organisms lack a _______.

    nucleus

    Short Answer

    Describe the differences between bacteria and archaea.

    Name three structures that various protozoa use for locomotion.

    Describe the actual and relative sizes of a virus, a bacterium, and a plant or animal cell.

    Critical Thinking

    Contrast the behavior of a virus outside versus inside a cell.

    Where would a virus, bacterium, animal cell, and a prion belong on this chart?

    1.6 Tools and Media Used for Bacterial Growth

    Multiple Choice

    EMB agar is a medium used in the identification and isolation of pathogenic bacteria. It contains digested meat proteins as a source of organic nutrients. Two indicator dyes, eosin and methylene blue, inhibit the growth of gram-positive bacteria and distinguish between lactose fermenting and nonlactose fermenting organisms. Lactose fermenters form metallic green or deep purple colonies, whereas the nonlactose fermenters form completely colorless colonies. EMB agar is an example of which of the following?

    A. a selective medium only
    B. a differential medium only
    C. a selective medium and a chemically defined medium
    D. a selective medium, a differential medium, and a complex medium

    D

    Haemophilus influenzae must be grown on chocolate agar, which is blood agar treated with heat to release growth factors in the medium. H. influenzae is described as ________.

    A. an acidophile
    B. a thermophile
    C. an obligate anaerobe
    D. fastidious

    D

    Fill in the Blank

    Blood agar contains many unspecified nutrients, supports the growth of a large number of bacteria, and allows differentiation of bacteria according to hemolysis (breakdown of blood). The medium is ________ and ________.

    complex, differential

    Rogosa agar contains yeast extract. The pH is adjusted to 5.2 and discourages the growth of many microorganisms; however, all the colonies look similar. The medium is ________ and ________.

    complex, selective

    Short Answer

    What is the major difference between an enrichment culture and a selective culture?

    Critical Thinking

    Haemophilus, influenzae grows best at 35–37 °C with ~5% CO2 (or in a candle-jar) and requires hemin (X factor) and nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide (NAD, also known as V factor) for growth.1 Using the vocabulary learned in this chapter, describe H. influenzae.

    • Was this article helpful?