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1.2: Learning Outcomes

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    The content, assignments, and assessments for Biology for Non-Majors I are aligned to the following learning outcomes. A full list of course learning outcomes can be viewed here: Biology for Non-Majors I Learning Outcomes.

    Module 1: Introduction to Biology

    Define biology and apply its principles

    • List the defining characteristics of biological life
    • Describe classification and organizational tools biologists use, including modern taxonomy
    • Identify the main branches of biology
    • Describe biology as a science and identify the key components of scientific inquiry

    Module 2: Chemistry of Life

    Identify the principles of chemistry that are integral to biology

    • Define atoms and elements
    • Classify different types of atomic bonds
    • Demonstrate familiarity with the pH scale

    Module 3: Important Biological Macromolecules

    Identify and describe the main features of the four main classes of important biological macromolecules

    • Discuss why it is said that life is carbon-based and the bonding properties of carbon
    • Summarize the roles carbohydrates play in biological systems
    • Illustrate different types of lipids and relate their structure to their role in biological systems
    • Describe the structure and function of proteins
    • Discuss nucleic acids and the role they play in DNA and RNA
    • Discuss macromolecules and the differences between the four classes

    Module 4: Cellular Structure

    Identify and explain a variety of cellular components

    • State the basic principles of the unified cell theory
    • Compare prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    • Identify membrane-bound organelles found in eukaryotic cells

    Module 5: Cell Membranes

    Describe and explain the structure and function of membranes

    • Describe the structure and function of membranes, especially the phospholipid bilayer
    • Explain how substances are directly transported across a membrane
    • Describe the primary mechanisms by which cells import and export macromolecules

    Module 6: Metabolic Pathways

    Explain the metabolic pathways involved in the capture and release of energy in cells

    • Discuss energy and metabolism in living things
    • Describe how cells store and transfer free energy using ATP
    • Identify the reactants and products of cellular respiration and where these reactions occur in a cell
    • Illustrate the basic components and steps of fermentation
    • Identify the basic components and steps of photosynthesis
    • Discuss the connections between metabolic pathways

    Module 7: Cell Division

    Describe and explain the various stages of cell division

    • Understand chromosome structure and organization in eukaryotic cells
    • Identify the stages of the cell cycle, by picture and by description of major milestones
    • Identify and explain the important checkpoints that a cell passes through during the cell cycle
    • Understand how sexual reproduction leads to different sexual life cycles
    • Identify the stages of meiosis by picture and by description of major milestones; explain why meiosis involves two rounds of nuclear division
    • Describe and explain a range of mechanisms for generating genetic diversity
    • Examine karyotypes and identify the effects of significant changes in chromosome number

    Module 8: DNA Structure and Replication

    Relate DNA structure to the process of DNA replication

    • Explain how DNA stores genetic information
    • Explain the role of complementary base pairing in the precise replication process of DNA
    • Identify different viruses and how they replicate

    Module 9: DNA Transcription and Translation

    Describe the conversion of DNA to RNA to proteins

    • Outline the process of transcription
    • Summarize the process of translation
    • Identify the central dogma of life
    • Recognize the impact of DNA mutations

    Module 10: Gene Expression

    Explain the regulation of gene expression

    • Define the term regulation as it applies to genes
    • Understand the basic steps in gene regulation in prokaryotic cells
    • Discuss different components and types of epigenetic gene regulation

    Module 11: Trait Inheritance

    Complete monohybrid and dihybrid crosses and family pedigrees, and explain the inheritance of various traits

    • Identify the impact of Gregor Mendel on the field of genetics and apply Mendel’s two laws of genetics
    • Explain complications to the phenotypic expression of genotype, including mutations
    • Explain the conventions of a family pedigree and predict whether a disease will be passed through a family in one of three modes
    • Discuss the role environment plays on phenotypes

    Module 12: Theory of Evolution

    Explain the theory of evolution, which documents the change in the genetic makeup of a biological population over time

    • Describe the work of Charles Darwin in the Galapagos Islands, especially his discovery of natural selection in finch populations
    • Describe how the theory of evolution by natural selection is supported by evidence
    • Recognize that mutations are the basis of microevolution; and that adaptations enhance the survival and reproduction of individuals in a population
    • Read and analyze a phylogenetic tree that documents evolutionary relationships

    Module 13: Modern Biology

    Describe and discuss techniques used in modern biology

    • List key technologies enabling modern uses of biology
    • Identify societal uses of biotechnology
    • Discuss the risks and benefits involved in applications of genetic and genomic science

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    • Magnify. Authored by: Eucalyp. Provided by: Noun Project. Located at: License: CC BY: Attribution
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