Skip to main content
Biology LibreTexts

17.11: Bibliography

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    Agnew, D.J., J. Pearce, G. Pramod, et al., 2009. Estimating the worldwide extent of illegal fishing. PLoS ONE 4: e4570.

    Andersson, J., M. de Garine-Wichatitsky, D. Cumming, et al. 2013. Transfrontier Conservation Areas: People Living on the Edge (New York: Routledge).

    ARCOS (Albertine Rift Conservation Society) 2004. A framework for conservation in the Albertine Rift: 2004–30 (Kampala: ARCOS).

    Ayebare, S., A.J. Plumptre, D. Kujirakwinja, and D. Segan. 2018. Conservation of the endemic species of the Albertine Rift under future climate change. Biological Conservation 220: 67–75.

    Baker, D.J., A.J. Hartley, N.D. Burgess, et al. 2015. Assessing climate change impacts for vertebrate fauna across the West African protected area network using regionally appropriate climate projections. Diversity and Distributions 21: 991–1003.

    Baker, J., E.J. Milner-Gulland, and N. Leader-Williams. 2012. Park gazettement and integrated conservation and development as factors in community conflict at Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda. Conservation Biology 26: 160–70.

    Balme, G.A., R.O.B. Slotow, and L.T.B. Hunter. 2010. Edge effects and the impact of nonprotected areas in carnivore conservation: Leopards in the Phinda–Mkhuze Complex, South Africa. Animal Conservation 13: 315–23.

    Beale, C.M., S. van Rensberg, W.J. Bond, et al. 2013b. Ten lessons for the conservation of African savannah ecosystems. Biological Conservation 167: 224–32.

    Beale, C.M., N.E. Baker, M.J. Brewer, et al. 2013a. Protected area networks and savannah bird biodiversity in the face of climate change and land degradation. Ecology Letters 16: 1061–68.

    Beresford, A.E., G.M. Buchanan, P.F. Donald, et al. 2011. Poor overlap between the distribution of protected areas and globally threatened birds in Africa. Animal Conservation 14: 99–107.

    Blake, S., S.L. Deem, S. Strindberg, et al. 2008 Roadless wilderness area determines forest elephant movements in the Congo Basin. PloS ONE 3: e3546.

    Blom, A., R. van Zalinge, E. Mbea, et al. 2004. Human impact on wildlife populations within a protected Central African forest. African Journal of Ecology 42: 23–31.

    Blomley, T., F. Nelson, H. Doulton, et al. 2019. Scaling up community forest enterprises in Tanzania. IIED Briefing, April 2019.

    Brashares, J.S., P. Arcese, and M.K. Sam. 2001. Human demography and reserve size predict wildlife extinction in West Africa. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 268: 2473–78.

    Brashares, J.S., P. Arcese, M.K. Sam, et al. 2004. Bushmeat hunting, wildlife declines, and fish supply in West Africa. Science 306: 1180–83.

    Brooks, T.M., S.J. Wright, and D. Sheil. 2009. Evaluating the success of conservation actions in safeguarding tropical forest biodiversity. Conservation Biology 23: 1448–57.

    Brugiere, D., and R. Kormos. 2009. Review of the protected area network in Guinea, West Africa, and recommendations for new sites for biodiversity conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 847–68.

    Buckland, S.T., and A. Johnston. 2017. Monitoring the biodiversity of regions: Key principles and possible pitfalls. Biological Conservation 214: 23–34.

    Buckley, R.C., C. Morrison, and J.G. Castley. 2016. Net effects of ecotourism on threatened species survival. PloS ONE 11: e0147988.

    Carroll, R. 1992. Central African Republic. In: The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests Africa, ed. by J.A. Sayer, et al. (London: Palgrave Macmillan).

    Carwardine, J., K.A. Wilson, M. Watts, et al. 2008. Avoiding costly conservation mistakes: The importance of defining actions and costs in spatial priority setting. PLoS ONE 3: e2586.

    Chadwick. P., J. Duncan, and K. Tunley. 2014. State of management of South Africa’s marine protected areas (Cape Town: WWF South Africa).

    Chennels, R. 1999. What have we achieved? (Cape Town: South African San Institute).

    Clements, H., J. Baum, and G.S. Cumming. 2016. Money and motives: An organizational ecology perspective on private land conservation. Biological Conservation 197: 108–15.

    Coetzee, B.W.T., M.P. Robertson, B.F.N. Erasmus, et al. 2009. Ensemble models predict Important Bird Areas in southern Africa will become less effective for conserving endemic birds under climate change. Global Ecology and Biogeography 18: 701–10.

    Coetzer, K.L., E.T.F. Witkowski, and B.F.N. Erasmus. 2014. Reviewing Biosphere Reserves globally: Effective conservation action or bureaucratic label? Biological Reviews 89: 82–104.

    Cousins, J., J. Sadler, and J. Evans. 2010. The challenge of regulating private wildlife ranches for conservation in South Africa. Ecology and Society 15: 28.

    Cozzi, G., F. Broekhuis, J.W. McNutt, et al. 2013. Comparison of the effects of artificial and natural barriers on large African carnivores: Implications for interspecific relationships and connectivity. Journal of Animal Ecology 82: 707–15.

    Craigie, I.D., J.E.M. Baillie, A. Balmford, et al. 2010. Large mammal population declines in Africa’s protected areas. Biological Conservation 143: 2221–28.

    Cross, H. 2016. Displacement, disempowerment and corruption: Challenges at the interface of fisheries, management and conservation in the Bijagós Archipelago, Guinea-Bissau. Oryx 50: 693–701.

    da Silva, I.M., N. Hill, H. Shimadzu, et al. 2015. Spillover effects of a community-managed marine reserve. PloS ONE 10: e0111774.

    Dallimer, M., and N. Strange. 2015. Why socio-political borders and boundaries matter in conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 30: 132–39.

    Darwall, W., K. Smith, T. Lowe, et al. 2005. The status and distribution of freshwater biodiversity in Eastern Africa (Gland: IUCN).

    de Vos, A., H.S. Clements, D. Biggs, et al. 2019. The dynamics of proclaimed privately protected areas in South Africa over 83 years. Conservation Letters 12: e12644.

    Dudley, N. 2008. Guidelines for applying protected area management categories (Gland: IUCN).

    Dupain, J., A. Fowler, P. Kasalevo, et al. 2013. The process of creation of a new protected area in the Democratic Republic of Congo: The case of the Iyondji Community Bonobo Reserve (DRC). Pan Africa News 20: 10–13.

    Durán, A.P., J. Rauch, and K.J. Gaston. 2013. Global spatial coincidence between protected areas and metal mining activities. Biological Conservation 160: 272–78.

    Edwards, D.P., S. Sloan, L. Weng, et al. 2014. Mining and the African environment. Conservation Letters 7: 302–11.

    Endamana, D., A.K. Boedhihartono, B. Bokoto, et al. 2010. A framework for assessing conservation and development in a Congo Basin Forest Landscape. Tropical Conservation Science 3: 262–81.

    Ervin, J. 2003. Rapid assessment of protected area management effectiveness in four countries. BioScience 53: 833–41.[0833:RAOPAM]2.0.CO;2

    Ferraro, P.J., and M.M. Hanauer. 2014. Quantifying causal mechanisms to determine how protected areas affect poverty through changes in ecosystem services and infrastructure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111: 4332–37.

    Feyisa, G.L., K. Dons, and H. Meilby. 2014. Efficiency of parks in mitigating urban heat island effect: An example from Addis Ababa. Landscape and Urban Planning 123: 87–95.

    Fishpool, L.D.C., and M.I. Evans. 2001. Important Bird Areas in Africa and Associated Islands (Cambridge: BirdLife International).

    Foxcroft, L.C., D. Spear, N.J. van Wilgen, et al. 2019. Assessing the association between pathways of alien plant invaders and their impacts in protected areas. NeoBiota 43: 1–25.

    Fuller, R.A., E. McDonald-Madden, K.A. Wilson, et al. 2010. Replacing underperforming protected areas achieves better conservation outcomes. Nature 466: 365–67.

    Gaertner, M., B.M.H. Larson, U.M. Irlich, et al. 2016. Managing invasive species in cities: A framework from Cape Town, South Africa. Landscape and Urban Planning 151: 1–9.

    Gallo, J.A., L. Pasquini, B. Reyers, et al. 2009. The role of private conservation areas in biodiversity representation and target achievement within the Little Karoo region, South Africa. Biological Conservation 142: 446–54.

    Geffroy, B., D.S.M. Samia, E. Bessa, et al. 2015. How nature-based tourism might increase prey vulnerability to predators. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 30: 755–65.

    Gill, D.A., M.B. Mascia, G.N. Ahmadia, et al. 2017. Capacity shortfalls hinder the performance of marine protected areas globally. Nature 543: 665–69.

    Gray, C.L., S.L. Hill, T. Newbold, et al. 2016. Local biodiversity is higher inside than outside terrestrial protected areas worldwide. Nature Communications 7: 12306.

    Gremillet, D., C. Peron, P. Provost, et al. 2015. Adult and juvenile European seabirds at risk from marine plundering off West Africa. Biological Conservation 182: 143–47.

    Habtemariam, B.T., and Q. Fang. 2016. Zoning for a multiple-use marine protected area using spatial multi-criteria analysis: The case of the Sheik Seid Marine National Park in Eritrea. Marine Policy 63: 135–43.

    Hall, J.M., N.D. Burgess, S. Rantala, et al. 2014. Ecological and social outcomes of a new protected area in Tanzania. Conservation Biology 28: 1512–21.

    Hanks, J. 2003. Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) in Southern Africa: Their role in conserving biodiversity, socioeconomic development and promoting a culture of peace. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 17: 127–48.

    Harcourt, A.H., S.A. Parks, and R. Woodroffe. 2001. Human density as an influence on species/area relationships: Double jeopardy for small African reserves? Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 1011–26.

    Hauenstein, S., M. Kshatriya, J. Blanc, et al. 2019. African elephant poaching rates correlate with local poverty, national corruption and global ivory price. Nature Communications 10: 2242.

    Henschel, P., L. Coad, C. Burton, et al. 2014. The lion in West Africa is critically endangered. PLoS ONE 9: e83500.

    Hockings, M., S. Stolton, F. Leverington, et al. 2006. Evaluating Effectiveness: A Framework for Assessing Management Effectiveness of Protected Areas (Gland: IUCN).

    Hole, D.G., B. Huntley, J. Arinaitwe, et al. 2011. Toward a management framework for networks of protected areas in the face of climate change. Conservation Biology 25: 305–15.

    Ibisch, P.L., M.T. Hoffmann, S. Kreft, et al. 2016. A global map of roadless areas and their conservation status. Science 354: 1423–27.

    Ihwagi, F.W., T. Wang, G. Wittemyer, et al. 2015. Using poaching levels and elephant distribution to assess the conservation efficacy of private, communal and government land in northern Kenya. PLoS ONE 10: e0139079.

    IUCN WCPA (World Commission on Protected Areas). 2017. IUCN Green List of Protected and Conserved Areas: Standard, v. 1.1 (Gland:IUCN).

    IUCN WCPA (World Commission on Protected Areas). 2018. PARKS 24: Special Issue: Standard (Gland:,IUCN).

    Jones, K.R., A.J. Plumptre, J.E.M. Watson, et al. 2016, Testing the effectiveness of surrogate species for conservation planning in the Greater Virunga Landscape, Africa. Landscape and Urban Planning 145: 1–11.

    Kahumbu, P., D. Martins, J. Schieltz, et al. 2016. Transforming the next generation through citizen science in Kenya: The kids twiga tally Swara April–June 2016: 52–56.

    Kerwath, S.E., E.B. Thorstad, T.F. Næsje, et al. 2009. Crossing invisible boundaries: The effectiveness of the Langebaan Lagoon Marine Protected Area as a harvest refuge for a migratory fish species in South Africa. Conservation Biology 23: 653–61.

    Kiffner, C., C. Stoner, and T. Caro. 2013. Edge effects and large mammal distributions in a national park. Animal Conservation: 97–107.

    Klein, C.J., C.J. Brown, B.S. Halpern, et al. 2015. Shortfalls in the global protected area network at representing marine biodiversity. Scientific Reports 5: 17539.

    Knight, A.T., A. Driver, R.M. Cowling, et al. 2006. Designing systematic conservation assessments that promote effective implementation: Best practice from South Africa. Conservation Biology 20: 739–50.

    Laurance, W.F., D.C. Useche, J. Rendeiro, et al. 2012. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas. Nature 489: 290–94.

    Lavrenchenko, L., and R. Kennerley. 2016. Tachyoryctes microcephalus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T21293A115161321.

    Leach, K, S.E. Brooks, and S. Blyth. 2016. Potential threat to areas of biodiversity importance from current and emerging oil and gas activities in Africa (Cambridge: UNEP-WCMC).

    Lester, S.E., B.S. Halpern, K. Grorud-Colvert, et al. 2009. Biological effects within no-take marine reserves: A global synthesis. Marine Ecology Progress Series 384: 33–46.

    Lindsey P.A., V.R. Nyirenda, J.L. Barnes, et al. 2014. Underperformance of African protected area networks and the case for new conservation models: Insights from Zambia. PLoS ONE 9: e94109.

    Lindsey, P.A., G. Chapron, L.S. Petracca, et al. 2017. Relative efforts of countries to conserve world’s megafauna. Global Ecology and Conservation 10: 243–52.

    Lindsey, P.A., J.R.B. Miller, L.S. Petracca, et al. 2018. More than $1 billion needed annually to secure Africa’s protected areas with lions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: E10788-E10796.

    Lwanga, J.S., T.T. Struhsaker, P.J. Struhsaker, et al. 2011. Primate population dynamics over 32.9 years at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology 73: 997–1011.

    Makhado, A.B., M.A. Meÿer, R.J.M. Crawford, et al. 2009. The efficacy of culling seals seen preying on seabirds as a means of reducing seabird mortality. African Journal of Ecology 47: 335–40.

    Marino, J., and C. Sillero-Zubiri. 2011. Canis simensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T3748A10051312.

    Mascia, M.B., and S. Pailler. 2011. Protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement PADDD and its conservation implications. Conservation Letters 4: 9–20.

    Mbaiwa, J.E., and A.L. Stronza. 2011. Changes in resident attitudes towards tourism development and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Environmental Management 92: 1950–59.

    McClanahan, T.R., J.M. Maina, N.A. Graham et al. 2016. Modeling reef fish biomass, recovery potential, and management priorities in the western Indian Ocean. PloS ONE 11: e0154585.

    McClanahan, T.R., N.A.J. Graham, J.M. Calnan, et al. 2007. Toward pristine biomass: Reef fish recovery in coral reef marine protected areas in Kenya. Ecological Applications 17: 1055–67.

    McIntosh, E.J., R.L. Pressey, S. Lloyd, et al. 2017. The impact of systematic conservation planning. Annual Reviews of Environment and Resources 42: 677–97.

    Miller, J.R., and R.J. Hobbs. 2002. Conservation where people live and work. Conservation Biology 16: 330–37.

    Milner, J.M., E.B. Nilsen, and H.P. Andreassen. 2007. Demographic side effects of selective hunting in ungulates and carnivores. Conservation Biology 21: 36–47.

    Mittermeier, R.A., P. Robles-Gil, M. Hoffman, et al. 2005. Hotspots Revisited: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

    Monadjem, A., and D.K. Garcelon. 2005. Nesting distribution of vultures in relation to land use in Swaziland. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 2079–93.

    Moreto, W.D. 2015. Introducing intelligence-led conservation: Bridging crime and conservation science. Crime Science 4: 15.

    Myers, N. 1988. Threatened biotas: “Hot spots” in tropical forests. Environmentalist 8: 187–208.

    Myers, N., R.A. Mittermeier, C.G. Mittermeier, et al. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–58.

    Newmark, W.D. 1996. Insularization of Tanzanian parks and the local extinction of large mammals. Conservation Biology 10: 1549–56.

    Newmark, W.D. 2008. Isolation of African protected areas. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6: 321–28.

    O’Leary, B.C., M. Winther-Janson, J.M. Bainbridge, et al. 2016. Effective coverage targets for ocean protection. Conservation Letters 9: 398–404.

    Oberholzer, S., M. Saayman, A. Saayman, et al. 2010. The socio-economic impact of Africa’s oldest marine park. Koedoe 52: 879.

    Odadi, W.O., M.K. Karachi, S.A. Abdulrazak, et al. 2011. African wild ungulates compete with or facilitate cattle depending on season. Science 333: 1753–55.

    Ogutu, J.O., H.-P. Piepho, M.Y. Said, et al. 2016. Extreme wildlife declines and concurrent increase in livestock numbers in Kenya: What are the causes? PLoS ONE 11: e0163249.

    Oldekop, J.A., G. Holmes, W.E. Harris, et al. 2016. A global assessment of the social and conservation outcomes of protected areas. Conservation Biology 30: 133–41.

    Olson, D.M., and E. Dinerstein. 2002. The Global 200: Priority ecoregions for global conservation. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89: 199–24.

    Pimm, S.L. 1991. The Balance of Nature? (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

    Plumptre, A.J., S. Ayebare, D. Kujirakwinja, and D. Segan. 2019. Conservation planning for Africa’s western Rift: Conserving a biodiverse region in the face of multiple threats. Oryx 53: in press.

    Plumptre, A.J., S. Ayebare, D. Segan, et al., 2016. Conservation action plan for the Albertine Rift. WCS Report.

    Plumptre, A.J., T.R.B. Davenport, M. Behangana, et al. 2007. The biodiversity of the Albertine Rift. Biological Conservation 134: 178–94.

    Possingham, H.P., I.R. Ball, and S. Andelman. 2000. Mathematical methods for identifying representative reserve networks. In: Quantitative Methods for Conservation Biology, ed. by S. Ferson and M. Burgman (New York: Springer).

    Potapov, P., M.C. Hansen, L. Laestadius, et al. 2017. The last frontiers of wilderness: Tracking loss of intact forest landscapes from 2000 to 2013. Science Advances 3: e1600821.

    Pryke, J.S., M.J. Samways, and K. de Saedeleer. 2015. An ecological network is as good as a major protected area for conserving dragonflies. Biological Conservation 191: 537–45.

    Reid, H., D. Fig, H. Magome, et al. 2004. Co-management of contractual national parks in South Africa: Lessons from Australia. Conservation and Society 2: 377.

    Riginos, C., L.M. Porensky, K.E. Veblen, et al. 2012. Lessons on the relationship between livestock husbandry and biodiversity from the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE). Pastoralism 2: 10.

    Roberts, P., C.O. Hunt, M. Arroyo-Kalin, et al. 2017. The deep human prehistory of global tropical forests and its relevance for modern conservation. Nature Plants 3: 17093.

    Robinson, C.A.J., and M.J. Remis. 2014. Entangled Realms: Hunters and Hunted in the Dzanga-Sangha Dense Forest Reserve (APDS), Central African Republic. Anthropological Quarterly 87: 613–33.

    Rocliffe, S., S. Peabody, M. Samoilys, et al. 2014. Towards a network of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) in the Western Indian Ocean. PLoS ONE 9: e103000.

    Rodrigues, A.S.L., and T.M. Brooks. 2007. Shortcuts for biodiversity conservation planning: The effectiveness of surrogates. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 38: 713–37.

    Rubenstein, D.I. 2010. Ecology, social behavior, and conservation in zebras. Advances in the Study of Behavior 42: 231–58.

    Rubenstein, D.I., and I. Rubinoff. 2014. Mpala’s Beginnings. Mpala Memos Apr: 5–6 2014.

    Runge, C.A., J.E.M. Watson, S.H.M. Butchart, et al. 2015. Protected areas and global conservation of migratory birds. Science 350: 1255–58.

    Ryan, S.J., and P.D. Walsh. 2011. Consequences of non-intervention for infectious disease in African great apes. PloS ONE 6: e29030.

    Shafer, C.L. 1997. Terrestrial nature reserve design at the urban/rural interface. In: Conservation in Highly Fragmented Landscapes, ed. by M.W. Schwartz (New York: Chapman and Hall).

    Shannon, G., M.F. McKenna, L.M. Angeloni, et al. 2015. A synthesis of two decades of research documenting the effects of noise on wildlife. Biological Reviews 91: 982–1005.

    Sims-Castley, R., G.I. Kerley, B. Geach, et al. 2005. Socio-economic significance of ecotourism-based private game reserves in South Africa’s Eastern Cape Province. Parks 15: 6–18.

    Smith, A., M.C. Schoeman, M. Keith, et al. 2016. Synergistic effects of climate and land-use change on representation of African bats in priority conservation areas. Ecological Indicators 69: 276–83.

    Smith, R.J., J. Easton, B.A. Nhancale, et al. 2008. Designing a transfrontier conservation landscape for the Maputaland centre of endemism using biodiversity, economic and threat data. Biological Conservation 141: 2127–38.

    Smith, T.J., and G.F. Smith. 2004. Selecting important plant areas in southern Africa: News and views. South African Journal of Science 100: 434–35.

    Spalding, M.D., L. Fish, and L.J. Wood. 2008. Toward representative protection of the world’s coasts and oceans—progress, gaps, and opportunities. Conservation Letters 1: 217–26.

    Spear, D., L.C. Foxcroft, H. Bezuidenhout, et al. 2013. Human population density explains alien species richness in protected areas. Biological Conservation 159: 137–47.

    Stolton, S., M. Hockings, N. Dudley, et al. 2007. Management effectiveness tracking tool: Reporting progress at protected area sites (Gland: WWF).

    Tranquilli, S., M. Abedi-Lartey, F. Amsini, et al. 2012. Lack of conservation effort rapidly increases African great ape extinction risk. Conservation Letters 5: 48–55.

    Tranquilli, S., M. Abedi-Lartey, K. Abernethy, et al. 2014. Protected areas in tropical Africa: Assessing threats and conservation activities. PloS ONE 9: e114154.

    Tydecks, L., V. Bremerich, I. Jentschke, et al. 2016. Biological field stations: A global infrastructure for research, education, and public engagement. BioScience 66: 164–71.

    UNEP-WCMC. 2019. World Database on Protected Areas.

    van Rensburg, B.J., S. Hugo, N. Levin, et al. 2013. Are environmental transitions more prone to biological invasions? Diversity and Distributions 19: 341–51.

    van Wilgen, B.W., and H.C. Biggs. 2011. A critical assessment of adaptive ecosystem management in a large savanna protected area in South Africa. Biological Conservation 144: 1179–87.

    Vanak, A.T., M. Thaker, and R. Slotow. 2010. Do fences create an edge-effect on the movement patterns of a highly mobile mega-herbivore? Biological Conservation 143: 2631–37.

    Venter, O., A. Magrach, N. Outram, et al., 2018. Bias in protectedarea location and its effects on longterm aspirations of biodiversity conventions. Conservation Biology 32: 127–34.

    Watson, J.E., N. Dudley, D.B. Segan, et al. 2014. The performance and potential of protected areas. Nature 515: 67–73.

    Watson, J.E.M., K.R. Jones, R.A. Fuller, et al. 2016. Persistent disparities between recent rates of habitat conversion and protection and implications for future global conservation targets. Conservation Letters 9: 413–21.

    Watts, D.P., and J.C. Mitani. 2002. Hunting behavior of chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. International Journal of Primatology 23: 1–28.

    Watts, M.E, I.R. Ball, R.R. Stewart, et al. 2009. Marxan with Zones: Software for optimal conservation-based land- and sea-use zoning. Environmental Modelling and Software 24: 1513–21.

    Wegmann M., L. Santini, B. Leutner, et al. 2014 Role of African protected areas in maintaining connectivity for large mammals. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 369: 20130193.

    WHC (World Heritage Committee). 2018. W-Arly-Pendjari Complex.

    Wintle, B.A., H. Kujala, A. Whitehead, et al. 2019. Global synthesis of conservation studies reveals the importance of small habitat patches for biodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116: 909–14.

    Woodroffe, R., and J.R. Ginsberg. 1998. Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science 280: 2126–28.

    WWF, and CI (Conservation International). 2016. Data Release v. 1.1,

    17.11: Bibliography is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

    • Was this article helpful?