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11.4: Early Induced Innate Immunity

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    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns Binding to Pattern-Recognition Receptors on Defense Cells. Glycoprotein molecules known as pattern-recognition receptors are found on the surface of a variety of body defense cells. They are so named because they recognize and bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns - molecular components associated with microorganisms but not found as a part of eukaryotic cells. These include bacterial molecules such as peptidoglycan, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharide, mannans, flagellin, pilin, and bacterial DNA. There are also pattern-recognition molecules for viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and fungal cell walls components such as lipoteichoic acids, glycolipids, mannans, and zymosan. Many of these pattern recognition receptors are known as toll-like receptors.

    Most body defense cells have pattern-recognition receptors or PRRs for these common PAMPs enabling an immediate response against the invading microorganism. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns can also be recognized by a series of soluble pattern-recognition receptors in the blood that function as opsonins and initiate the complement pathways. In all, the innate immune system is thought to recognize approximately 103 of these microbial molecular patterns.

    This page titled 11.4: Early Induced Innate Immunity is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Gary Kaiser via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.