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7.11.9: Key Terms

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    acrosomal reaction
    series of biochemical reactions that the sperm uses to break through the zona pellucida
    asexual reproduction
    form of reproduction that produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
    structure formed when cells in the mammalian blastula separate into an inner and outer layer
    form of asexual reproduction that results from the outgrowth of a part of a cell leading to a separation from the original animal into two individuals
    bulbourethral gland
    secretion that cleanses the urethra prior to ejaculation
    sensory structure in females; stimulated during sexual arousal
    common body opening for the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems found in non-mammals, such as birds
    (also, birth control) various means used to prevent pregnancy
    reproductive hormone in females that assists in endometrial regrowth, ovulation, and calcium absorption
    external fertilization
    fertilization of egg by sperm outside animal body, often during spawning
    (also, binary fission) method by which multicellular organisms increase in size or asexual reproduction in which a unicellular organism splits into two separate organisms by mitosis
    follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    reproductive hormone that causes sperm production in males and follicle development in females
    cutting or fragmenting of the original animal into parts and the growth of a separate animal from each part
    process in which the blastula folds over itself to form the three germ layers
    length of time for fetal development to birth
    gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
    hormone from the hypothalamus that causes the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary
    state of having both male and female reproductive parts within the same individual organism; refers only to nonhuman animals
    complete cleavage; takes place in cells with a small amount of yolk
    human beta chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG)
    hormone produced by the chorion of the zygote that helps to maintain the corpus luteum and elevated levels of progesterone
    inability to conceive, carry, and deliver children
    hormone made by Sertoli cells; provides negative feedback to hypothalamus in control of FSH and GnRH release
    inner cell mass
    inner layer of cells in the blastocyst
    internal fertilization
    fertilization of egg by sperm inside the body of the female
    interstitial cell of Leydig
    cell in seminiferous tubules that makes testosterone
    labia majora
    large folds of tissue covering the inguinal area
    labia minora
    smaller folds of tissue within the labia majora
    luteinizing hormone (LH)
    reproductive hormone in both males and females, causes testosterone production in males and ovulation and lactation in females
    loss of reproductive capacity due to decreased sensitivity of the ovaries to FSH and LH
    menstrual cycle
    cycle of the degradation and regrowth of the endometrium
    partial cleavage; takes place in cells with a large amount of yolk
    morning sickness
    condition in the pregnant people during the first trimester; includes feelings of nausea
    neural tube
    tube-like structure that forms from the ectoderm and gives rise to the brain and spinal cord
    process of producing haploid eggs
    process of organ formation
    ovarian cycle
    cycle of preparation of egg for ovulation and the conversion of the follicle to the corpus luteum
    (also, fallopian tube) muscular tube connecting the uterus with the ovary area
    process by which fertilized eggs are laid outside the female’s body and develop there, receiving nourishment from the yolk that is a part of the egg
    process by which fertilized eggs are retained within the female; the embryo obtains its nourishment from the egg’s yolk and the young are fully developed when they are hatched
    release of the egg by the most mature follicle
    form of asexual reproduction where an egg develops into a complete individual without being fertilized
    male reproductive structure for urine elimination and copulation
    organ that supports the diffusion of nutrients and waste between the pregnant person’s and fetus’ blood
    condition in which one egg is fertilized by multiple sperm
    reproductive hormone in females; assists in endometrial regrowth and inhibition of FSH and LH release
    prostate gland
    structure that is a mixture of smooth muscle and glandular material and that contributes to semen
    sac containing testes; exterior to the body
    fluid mixture of sperm and supporting materials
    seminal vesicle
    secretory accessory gland in males; contributes to semen
    seminiferous tubule
    site of sperm production in testes
    Sertoli cell
    cell in seminiferous tubules that assists developing sperm and makes inhibin
    sexual reproduction
    mixing of genetic material from two individuals to produce genetically unique offspring
    group of cells separated by small spaces that form from the mesoderm and give rise to connective tissue
    specialized sac that stores sperm for later use
    process of producing haploid sperm
    pair of reproductive organs in males
    reproductive hormone in men that assists in sperm production and promoting secondary sexual characteristics
    outer layer of cells in the blastocyst
    environment for developing embryo and fetus
    muscular tube for the passage of menstrual flow, copulation, and birth of offspring
    process in which the young develop within the female, receiving nourishment from the mother’s blood through a placenta
    zona pellucida
    protective layer of glycoproteins on the mammalian egg

    7.11.9: Key Terms is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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