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14.8: Bibliography

  • Page ID
    71106
  • Ali, A.H., A.T. Ford, J.S. Evans, et al. 2017. Resource selection and landscape change reveal mechanisms suppressing population recovery for the world’s most endangered antelope. Journal of Applied Ecology 54: 1720–29. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12856

    Anaya, J. 2010. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people. Addendum. The situation of indigenous peoples in Botswana (New York: UNHRC). https://undocs.org/A/HRC/15/37/Add.2

    Anderson, P.M.L., C. Okereke, A. Rudd, et al. 2014. Regional assessment of Africa. In: Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities: A Global Assessment, ed. by T. Elmqvist, et al. (New York: Springer). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7088-1

    Arntzen, J., T. Setlhogile, and J. Barnes. 2007. Rural livelihoods, poverty reduction and food security in Southern Africa: Is CBNRM the answer? (Washington: USAID). http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/cpsi/unpan026980.pdf

    Asare, A., and A. Raebild. 2016. Tree diversity and canopy cover in cocoa systems in Ghana. New Forests 47: 287–302. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-015-9515-3

    Bale, R. 2016. How chili condoms and firecrackers can help save elephants. National Geographic. http://on.natgeo.com/28SSeWj

    Balint, P.J., and J. Mashinya. 2008. CAMPFIRE during Zimbabwe’s national crisis: Local impacts and broader implications for community-based wildlife management. Society and Natural Resources 21: 783–96. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920701681961

    Balmford, A., J.L. Moore, T. Brooks, et al. 2001. Conservation conflicts across Africa. Science 291: 2616–19. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.291.5513.2616

    Balmford, A., R. Green, and B. Phalan. 2012. What conservationists need to know about farming. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279: 2714–24. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2012.0515

    Bastille-Rousseau, G., J. Wall, I. Douglas-Hamilton et al. 2018. Optimizing the positioning of wildlife crossing structures using GPS telemetry. Journal of Applied Ecology 55: 2055–63. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13117

    Benítez-López, A., R. Alkemade, A.M. Schipper, et al. 2017. The impact of hunting on tropical mammal and bird populations. Science 356: 180–83. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaj1891

    Beresford, A.E., G.M. Buchanan, P.F. Donald, et al. 2011. Poor overlap between the distribution of protected areas and globally threatened birds in Africa. Animal Conservation 14: 99–107. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2010.00398.x

    Bicknell, J.E., M.J. Struebig, D.P. Edwards, et al., 2013. Improved timber harvest techniques maintain biodiversity in tropical forests. Current Biology 24: R1119–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.10.067

    Bisseleua, H.B.D., A.D. Missoup, and S. Vidal. 2009. Biodiversity conservation, ecosystem functioning, and economic incentives under cocoa agroforestry intensification. Conservation Biology 23: 1176–84. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01220.x

    Bisseleua, H.B.D., D. Begoude, H. Tonnang, et al. 2017. Ant-mediated ecosystem services and disservices on marketable yield in cocoa agroforestry systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 247: 407–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2017.07.004

    Blackburn, S., J.G.C. Hopcraft, J.O. Ogutu, et al. 2016. Human-wildlife conflict, benefit sharing and the survival of lions in pastoralist communitybased conservancies. Journal of Applied Ecology 53: 1195–205. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12632

    Blaser, W.J., J. Oppong, S.P. Hart, et al., 2018. Climate-smart sustainable agriculture in low-to-intermediate shade agroforests. Nature Sustainability 1: 234–39. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-018-0062-8

    Borrini-Feyerabend, G., and R. Hill. 2015. Governance for the conservation of nature. In: Protected Area Governance and Management, ed. by G.L. Worboys, et al. (Canberra: ANU Press). http://doi.org/10.22459/PAGM.04.2015

    Braschler, B. 2009. Successfully implementing a citizen-scientist approach to insect monitoring in a resource-poor country. BioScience 59: 103–04. https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2009.59.2.2

    Brashares J.S., C.W. Epps, and C.J. Stoner. 2010. Ecological and conservation implications of mesopredator release. In: Trophic Cascades, ed. by J. Terborgh and J. Estes (Washington: Island Press).

    Brockington, D., J. Igoe, and K. Schmidt-Soltau. 2006. Conservation, human rights, and poverty reduction. Conservation Biology 20: 250–52. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00335.x

    Brown, C.J. 2006. Historic distribution of large mammals in the Greater Fish River Canyon Complex, southern Namibia, and recommendations for re-introductions (Windhoek: Namibia Nature Foundation). http://www.the-eis.com/data/literature/Greater%20Fish%20River%20Canyon%20 Complex%20Historic%20distribution%20of%20mammals.pdf

    Buechley, E.R., Ç. H. Şekercioğlu, A. Atickem, et al. 2015. Importance of Ethiopian shade coffee farms for forest bird conservation. Biological Conservation 188: 50–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.01.011

    Chang’a, A., N. de Souza, J. Muya, et al. 2016. Scaling-up the use of chili fences for reducing human-elephant conflict across landscapes in Tanzania. Tropical Conservation Science 9: 921–30. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F194008291600900220

    Chiyo, P.I., J.W. Wilson, E.A. Archie, et al. 2014. The influence of forage, protected areas, and mating prospects on grouping patterns of male elephants. Behavioral Ecology 25: 1494–504. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/aru152

    Clark, C.J., J.R. Poulsen, R. Malonga, et al. 2009. Logging concessions can extend the conservation estate for Central African tropical forests. Conservation Biology 23: 1281–93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01243.x

    Colvin, C., A. Burns, K. Schachtschneider, et al. 2011. Coal and water futures in South Africa: The case for protecting headwaters in the Enkangala grasslands (Cape Town: WWF-SA). http://awsassets.wwf.org.za/downloads/wwf_coal_water_report_2011_web.pdf

    Corbeels M, R.K. Sakyi, R.F. Kühne, et al. 2014. Meta-analysis of crop responses to conservation agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. CCAFS Report No. 12 (Copenhagen: CCAFS). https://ccafs.cgiar.org/publications/meta-analysis-crop-responses-conservation-agriculture-sub-saharan-africa

    Culwick, C., and K. Bobbins. 2016. A framework for a green infrastructure planning approach in the Gauteng City-Region. GCRO Research Report 04 (Johannnesburg: GCRO). http://www.gcro.ac.za/media/reports/GCRO_Green_Assets_Report_Digital_version__book.pdf

    de Wit, M., H. van Zyl, D. Crookes, et al. 2009. Investing in Natural Assets: A business case for the environment in the City of Cape Town (Cape Town: City of Cape Town).

    Dell’Amore, C. 2012. Pictures: Elephant underpass reuniting Kenya herds. National Geographic. http://on.natgeo.com/Lkubxo

    Demuzere, M., K. Orru, O. Heidrich, et al. 2014. Mitigating and adapting to climate change: Multi-functional and multi-scale assessment of green urban infrastructure. Journal of Environmental Management 146: 107–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.07.025

    Dickman, A.J., E.A. Macdonald, and D.W. Macdonald. 2011. A review of financial instruments to pay for predator conservation and encourage human-carnivore coexistence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108: 13937–44. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1012972108

    Dobson, A.P., M. Borner, A.R.E. Sinclair, et al. 2010. Road will ruin Serengeti. Nature 467: 272–73. https://doi.org/10.1038/467272a

    Drechsel, P., L. Gyiele, D. Kunze, et al. 2001. Population density, soil nutrient depletion, and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Ecological Economics 38: 251–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(01)00167-7

    Dupuis-Desormeaux, M., T.N. Kaaria, M. Mwololo, et al. 2018. A ghost fence-gap: Surprising wildlife usage of an obsolete fence crossing. PeerJ 6: e5950. https://dx.doi.org/10.7717%2Fpeerj.5950

    Durant, S.M., M.S. Becker, S. Creel, et al. 2015. Developing fencing policies for dryland ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology 52: 544–51. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12415

    Edwards, D.P., S. Sloan, L. Weng, et al. 2014. Mining and the African environment. Conservation Letters 7: 302–11. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12076

    EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2018. Green Infrastructure. https://www.epa.gov/green-infrastructure

    Eshete, G., G. Tesfay, H. Bauer, et al. 2015. Community resource uses and Ethiopian wolf conservation in Mount Abune Yosef. Environmental Management 56: 684–94. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-015-0529-6

    Fa, J.E., J. Olivero, M.A. Farfán, et al. 2016. Differences between Pygmy and non-Pygmy hunting in Congo Basin forests. PLoS ONE 11: e0161703. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161703

    Feka, N.Z., G.B. Chuyong, and G.N. Ajonina. 2009. Sustainable utilization of mangroves using improved fish-smoking systems: A management perspective from the Douala-Edea wildlife reserve, Cameroon. Tropical Conservation Science 2: 450–68. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F194008290900200406

    Fischer, J., D.J. Abson, V. Butsic, et al. 2014. Land sparing versus land sharing: Moving forward. Conservation Letters 7: 149–57. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12084

    Ford, A.T., A.P. Clevenger, and A. Bennett. 2009. Comparison of methods of monitoring wildlife crossing-structures on highways. Journal of Wildlife Management 73: 1213–22. https://doi.org/10.2193/2008-387

    FPP (Forest Peoples Programme). 2016. FPP Statement on survival international’s complaint against WWF. FPP Press Release. https://www.forestpeoples.org/en/news-article/2016/fpp-statement-survival-internationals-complaint-against-wwf

    Frick, W.F., E.F. Baerwald, J.F. Pollock, et al. 2017. Fatalities at wind turbines may threaten population viability of a migratory bat. Biological Conservation 209: 172–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.02.023

    Gaertner, M., B.M.H. Larson, U.M. Irlich, et al. 2016. Managing invasive species in cities: A framework from Cape Town, South Africa. Landscape and Urban Planning 151: 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.03.010

    Garnett, T., M. Appleby, A. Balmford, et al. 2013. Sustainable intensification in agriculture: Premises and policies. Science 341: 33–34. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.1234485

    Gatere, L., J. Lehmann, S. DeGloria, et al. 2013. One size does not fit all: Conservation farming success in Africa more dependent on management than on location. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 179: 200–07. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.08.006

    Gatti, R.C., S. Castaldi, J.A. Lindsell, et al. 2015. The impact of selective logging and clearcutting on forest structure, tree diversity and above-ground biomass of African tropical forests. Ecological Research 30: 119–32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-014-1217-3

    Giller, K.E., E. Witter, M. Corbeels, et al. 2009. Conservation agriculture and smallholder farming in Africa: The heretics’ view. Field Crops Research 114: 23–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2009.06.017

    Goldman, N., J.R. de Pinho, and J. Perry. 2010. Maintaining complex relations with large cats: Maasai and lions in Kenya and Tanzania. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 15: 332–46. https://doi.org/10.1080/10871209.2010.506671

    Gonthier, D.J., K.K. Ennis, S. Farinas, et al. 2014. Biodiversity conservation in agriculture requires a multi-scale approach. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281: 20141358. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.1358

    Goodness, J., and P.M.L. Anderson. 2014. Local assessment of Cape Town. In: Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities: A Global Assessment, ed. by T. Elmqvist, et al. (New York: Springer). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7088-1

    Gove, A.D., K. Hylander, S. Nemomisa, et al. 2008. Ethiopian coffee cultivation—Implications for bird conservation and environmental certification. Conservation Letters 1: 208–16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2008.00033.x

    Granados, A., R.B. Weladji, and M.R. Loomis. 2012. Movement and occurrence of two elephant herds in a human-dominated landscape, the Bénoué Wildlife Conservation Area, Cameroon. Tropical Conservation Science 52: 150–62. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F194008291200500205

    Groom, R., and D. Western. 2013. Impact of land subdivision and sedentarization on wildlife in Kenya’s southern rangelands. Rangeland Ecology and Management 66: 1–9. https://doi.org/10.2111/REM-D-11-00021.1

    Gusset, M., M.J. Swarner, L. Mponwane, et al. 2009. Human-wildlife conflict in northern Botswana: livestock predation by endangered African wild dog Lycaon pictus and other carnivores. Oryx 43: 67–72. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605308990475

    Haines, G. 2016. Travellers urged to boycott Botswana over its treatment of Bushmen. Telegraph. http://tgr.ph/hid7nl

    Hazzah, L., S. Dolrenry, L. Naughton, et al. 2014. Efficacy of two lion conservation programs in Maasailand, Kenya. Conservation Biology 28: 851–60. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12244

    Holdo, R.M., J.M. Fryxell, A.R.E. Sinclair, et al. 2011. Predicted impact of barriers to migration on the Serengeti wildebeest population. PLoS ONE 6: e16370. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016370

    Hopcraft, J.G.C., S.A.R. Mduma, M. Borner, et al. 2015. Conservation and economic benefits of a road around the Serengeti. Conservation Biology 29: 932–36. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12470

    Huijser, M.P., J.W. Duffield, A.P. Clevenger, et al. 2009. Cost-benefit analyses of mitigation measures aimed at reducing collisions with large ungulates in the United States and Canada; a decision support tool. Ecology and Society 14: 15. https://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss2/art15

    Humphries, B.D., T.R. Hill, and C.T. Downs. 2015. Landowners’ perspectives of blackbacked jackals (Canis mesomelas) on farmlands in KwaZuluNatal, South Africa. African Journal of Ecology 53: 540–49. https://doi.org/10.1111/aje.12247

    ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute). 2006. Pastoralism: The surest way out of poverty in East African drylands (Nairobi: ILRI). https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/2274

    Kartzinel, T.R., P.A. Chen, T.C. Coverdale, et al. 2015. DNA metabarcoding illuminates dietary niche partitioning by African large herbivores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112: 8019–24. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1503283112

    Katzschner, T. 2013. Cape Flats Nature: Rethinking urban ecologies. In: Contested Ecologies: Dialogues in the South on Nature and Knowledge, ed. by L.J.F. Green (Cape Town: HSRC Press).

    Kellermann, J.L., M.D. Johnson, A.M. Stercho, et al. 2008. Ecological and economic services provided by birds on Jamaican Blue Mountain coffee farms. Conservation Biology 22: 1177–85. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00968.x

    Kennedy, C., M. Zhong, and J. Corfee-Morlot. 2016. Infrastructure for China’s Ecologically Balanced Civilization. Engineering 2: 414–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENG.2016.04.014

    Kioko, J., P. Muruthi, P. Omondi, et al. 2008. The performance of electric fences as elephant barriers in Amboseli, Kenya. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 38: 52–58. https://doi.org/10.3957/0379-4369-38.1.52

    Laurance, W.F., B.M. Croes, L. Tchignoumba, et al. 2006. Impacts of roads and hunting on central African rainforest mammals. Conservation Biology 20: 1251–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00420.x

    Laurance, W.F., J. Sayer, and K.G. Cassman. 2014. Agricultural expansion and its impacts on tropical nature. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 29: 107–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.12.001

    Laurance, W.F., S. Sloan, L. Weng, et al. 2015. Estimating the environmental costs of Africa’s massive “development corridors”. Current Biology 25: 3202–08. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.10.046

    Law, E.A., B.A. Bryan, E. Meijaard, et al. 2017. Mixed policies give more options in multifunctional tropical forest landscapes. Journal of Applied Ecology 54: 51–60. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12666

    Law, E.A., E. Meijaard, B.A. Bryan, et al. 2015. Better land-use allocation outperforms land sparing and land sharing approaches to conservation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biological Conservation 186: 276–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.03.004

    Lewis, D., S.D. Bell, J. Fay, et al. 2011. Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) links biodiversity conservation with sustainable improvements in livelihoods and food production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108: 13957–62. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011538108

    Linder, J.M., and R.E. Palkovitz. 2016. The threat of industrial oil palm expansion to primates and their habitats. In: Ethnoprimatology, ed. by M. Waller (Cham: Springer). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-30469-4

    Lindsey, P.A., C.P. Havemann, R. Lines, et al. 2013. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: Implications for conservation on southern African private lands. PloS ONE 8: e52458. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052458

    Maclennan S.D., R.J. Groom, D.W. Macdonald, et al. 2009. Evaluation of a compensation scheme to bring about pastoralist tolerance of lions. Biological Conservation 11: 2419–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.12.003

    Marker, L.L., A.J. Dickman, and D.W. Macdonald. 2005. Perceived effectiveness of livestock-guarding dogs placed on Namibian farms. Rangeland Ecology and Management 58: 329–36. https://doi.org/10.2111/1551-5028(2005)058[0329:PEOLDP]2.0.CO;2

    Matema, S., and J.A. Andersson. 2015. Why are lions killing us? Human-wildlife conflict and social discontent in Mbire District, northern Zimbabwe. Journal of Modern African Studies 53: 93–120. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022278X14000664

    Maxwell, S.L., R.A. Fuller, T.M. Brooks, et al. 2016. The ravages of guns, nets and bulldozers. Nature 536: 143–45. https://doi.org/10.1038/536143a

    McGahey, D., J. Davies, and E. Barrow. 2008. Pastoralism as conservation in the Horn of Africa: Effective policies for conservation outcomes in the drylands of Eastern Africa. Annals of Arid Zones 46: 353–77.

    McManus, J.S., A.J. Dickman, D. Gaynor, et al. 2015. Dead or alive? Comparing costs and benefits of lethal and non-lethal human-wildlife conflict mitigation on livestock farms. Oryx 49: 687–95. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605313001610

    Minnie, L., A. Gaylard, and G.I.H. Kerley. 2016. Compensatory lifehistory responses of a mesopredator may undermine carnivore management efforts. Journal of Applied Ecology 53: 379–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12581

    Morgan, D., R. Mundry, C. Sanz, et al. 2018. African apes coexisting with logging: Comparing chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) resource needs and responses to forestry activities. Biological Conservation 218: 277–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.10.026

    Msuha, M.J., C. Carbone, N. Pettorelli, et al. 2012. Conserving biodiversity in a changing world: Land use change and species richness in northern Tanzania. Biodiversity and Conservation 21: 2747–59. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-012-0331-1

    Murgatroyd, M., L.G. Underhill, L. Rodrigues, et al. 2016. The influence of agricultural transformation on the breeding performance of a top predator: Verreaux’s Eagles in contrasting land use areas. Condor 118: 238–52. https://doi.org/10.1650/CONDOR-15-142.1

    Murphree, M.W. 2009. The strategic pillars of communal natural resource management: Benefit, empowerment and conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 2551–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-009-9644-0.

    NACSO (Namibian Association of CBNRM Support Organisations). 2015. The state of community conservation in Namibia—A review of communal conservancies, community forests and other CBNRM initiatives (Windhoek: NACSO). http://www.nacso.org.na/sites/default/files/2014-15_SoCC-Report.pdf

    Naidoo, R., L.C. Weaver, R.W. Diggle, et al. 2016. Complementary benefits of tourism and hunting to communal conservancies in Namibia. Conservation Biology 30: 628–38. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12643

    Natural England. 2009. Natural England’s green infrastructure guidance (NE176) (York: Natural England). http://publications.naturalengland.org.uk/publication/35033

    Newsome, T.M., J.A. Dellinger, C.R. Pavey, et al. 2015. The ecological effects of providing resource subsidies to predators. Global Ecology and Biogeography 24: 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12236

    Nolte, C., A. Agrawal, K.M. Silvus, et al. 2013. Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110: 4956–5961. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1214786110

    Norris, K., A. Asase, B. Collen, et al. 2010. Biodiversity in a forest-agriculture mosaic—The changing face of West African rainforests. Biological Conservation 143: 2341–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.12.032

    Nyahunzvi, D.K. 2014. The resurgence in resource nationalism and private protected areas: Through the lens of Save Valley Conservancy’s indigenisation. Journal of Nature Conservation 22: 343–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2013.08.003

    O’Farrell, P.J., P.M.L. Anderson, D. le Maitre, et al. 2012. Insights and opportunities offered by a rapid ecosystem service assessment in promoting a conservation agenda in an urban biodiversity hotspot. Ecology and Society 17: 8. http://doi.org/10.5751/ES-04886-170327

    Obiri, B.D., G.A. Bright, M.A McDonald, et al. 2007. Financial analysis of shaded cocoa in Ghana. Agroforestry Systems 71: 139–49. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-007-9058-5

    Odadi, W.O., M.K. Karachi, S.A. Abdulrazak, et al. 2011. African wild ungulates compete with or facilitate cattle depending on season. Science 333: 1753–55. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1208468

    Odefey, J., S. Detwiler, K. Rousseau, et al. 2012. Banking on green: A look at how green infrastructure can save municipalities money and provide economic benefits community-wide (Washington: American Rivers and others). https://www.americanrivers.org/conservation-resource/banking-on-green

    OforiBoateng, C., W. Oduro, A. Hillers, et al. 2013. Differences in the effects of selective logging on amphibian assemblages in three west African forest types. Biotropica 45: 94–101. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2012.00887.x

    Ogada, D., A. Botha, and P. Shaw. 2015. Ivory poachers and poison: Drivers of Africa’s declining vulture populations. Oryx: 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605315001209

    Packer, C., D. Ikanda, B. Kissui, et al. 2005. Lion attacks on humans in Tanzania — understanding the timing and distribution of attacks on rural communities will help to prevent them. Nature 436: 927–28. https://doi.org/10.1038/436927a

    Parker G.E., F.V. Osborn, R.E. Hoare, et al. 2007. Human-elephant conflict mitigation: A training course for community-based approaches in Africa (Livingstone: Elephant Pepper Development Trust; Nairobi: IUCN/SSC AfESG). https://www.iucn.org/sites/dev/files/import/downloads/heccombaptmen.pdf

    Parker, G.E., and F.V. Osborn. 2006. Investigating the potential for chilli Capsicum spp. to reduce human-wildlife conflict in Zimbabwe. Oryx 40: 343–46. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605306000822

    Pooley, S., J.A. Mendelsohn, and E.J. Milner-Gulland. 2014. Hunting down the chimera of multiple disciplinarity in conservation science. Conservation Biology 28: 22–32. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12183

    Poulsen, J.R., C.J. Clark, G. Mavah, et al. 2009. Bushmeat supply and consumption in a tropical logging concession in northern Congo. Conservation Biology 23: 1597–608. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01251.x

    Pretty, J., C. Toulmin, and S. Williams. 2011. Sustainable intensification in African agriculture. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 9: 5–24. https://doi.org/10.3763/ijas.2010.0583

    Rai, N.D., and K.S. Bawa. 2013. Inserting politics and history in conservation. Conservation Biology 27: 425–28. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12026

    Rao, M.R., M.C. Palada, and B.N. Becker. 2004. Medicinal and aromatic plants in agroforestry systems. Afroforestry Systems 61: 107–22. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:AGFO.0000028993.83007.4b

    Roberts, P., C.O. Hunt, M. Arroyo-Kalin, et al. 2017. The deep human prehistory of global tropical forests and its relevance for modern conservation. Nature Plants 3: 17093. https://doi.org/10.1038/nplants.2017.93

    Roe, D., F. Nelson, and C. Sandbrook. 2009. Community Management of Natural Resources in Africa: Impacts, Experiences and Future Directions. Natural Resource Issues 18 (London: IIED). http://pubs.iied.org/17503IIED

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