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14.8: Bibliography

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    Ali, A.H., A.T. Ford, J.S. Evans, et al. 2017. Resource selection and landscape change reveal mechanisms suppressing population recovery for the world’s most endangered antelope. Journal of Applied Ecology 54: 1720–29.

    Anaya, J. 2010. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people. Addendum. The situation of indigenous peoples in Botswana (New York: UNHRC).

    Anderson, P.M.L., C. Okereke, A. Rudd, et al. 2014. Regional assessment of Africa. In: Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities: A Global Assessment, ed. by T. Elmqvist, et al. (New York: Springer).

    Arntzen, J., T. Setlhogile, and J. Barnes. 2007. Rural livelihoods, poverty reduction and food security in Southern Africa: Is CBNRM the answer? (Washington: USAID).

    Asare, A., and A. Raebild. 2016. Tree diversity and canopy cover in cocoa systems in Ghana. New Forests 47: 287–302.

    Bale, R. 2016. How chili condoms and firecrackers can help save elephants. National Geographic.

    Balint, P.J., and J. Mashinya. 2008. CAMPFIRE during Zimbabwe’s national crisis: Local impacts and broader implications for community-based wildlife management. Society and Natural Resources 21: 783–96.

    Balmford, A., J.L. Moore, T. Brooks, et al. 2001. Conservation conflicts across Africa. Science 291: 2616–19.

    Balmford, A., R. Green, and B. Phalan. 2012. What conservationists need to know about farming. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279: 2714–24.

    Bastille-Rousseau, G., J. Wall, I. Douglas-Hamilton et al. 2018. Optimizing the positioning of wildlife crossing structures using GPS telemetry. Journal of Applied Ecology 55: 2055–63.

    Benítez-López, A., R. Alkemade, A.M. Schipper, et al. 2017. The impact of hunting on tropical mammal and bird populations. Science 356: 180–83.

    Beresford, A.E., G.M. Buchanan, P.F. Donald, et al. 2011. Poor overlap between the distribution of protected areas and globally threatened birds in Africa. Animal Conservation 14: 99–107.

    Bicknell, J.E., M.J. Struebig, D.P. Edwards, et al., 2013. Improved timber harvest techniques maintain biodiversity in tropical forests. Current Biology 24: R1119–20.

    Bisseleua, H.B.D., A.D. Missoup, and S. Vidal. 2009. Biodiversity conservation, ecosystem functioning, and economic incentives under cocoa agroforestry intensification. Conservation Biology 23: 1176–84.

    Bisseleua, H.B.D., D. Begoude, H. Tonnang, et al. 2017. Ant-mediated ecosystem services and disservices on marketable yield in cocoa agroforestry systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 247: 407–17.

    Blackburn, S., J.G.C. Hopcraft, J.O. Ogutu, et al. 2016. Human-wildlife conflict, benefit sharing and the survival of lions in pastoralist communitybased conservancies. Journal of Applied Ecology 53: 1195–205.

    Blaser, W.J., J. Oppong, S.P. Hart, et al., 2018. Climate-smart sustainable agriculture in low-to-intermediate shade agroforests. Nature Sustainability 1: 234–39.

    Borrini-Feyerabend, G., and R. Hill. 2015. Governance for the conservation of nature. In: Protected Area Governance and Management, ed. by G.L. Worboys, et al. (Canberra: ANU Press).

    Braschler, B. 2009. Successfully implementing a citizen-scientist approach to insect monitoring in a resource-poor country. BioScience 59: 103–04.

    Brashares J.S., C.W. Epps, and C.J. Stoner. 2010. Ecological and conservation implications of mesopredator release. In: Trophic Cascades, ed. by J. Terborgh and J. Estes (Washington: Island Press).

    Brockington, D., J. Igoe, and K. Schmidt-Soltau. 2006. Conservation, human rights, and poverty reduction. Conservation Biology 20: 250–52.

    Brown, C.J. 2006. Historic distribution of large mammals in the Greater Fish River Canyon Complex, southern Namibia, and recommendations for re-introductions (Windhoek: Namibia Nature Foundation). Complex%20Historic%20distribution%20of%20mammals.pdf

    Buechley, E.R., Ç. H. Şekercioğlu, A. Atickem, et al. 2015. Importance of Ethiopian shade coffee farms for forest bird conservation. Biological Conservation 188: 50–60.

    Chang’a, A., N. de Souza, J. Muya, et al. 2016. Scaling-up the use of chili fences for reducing human-elephant conflict across landscapes in Tanzania. Tropical Conservation Science 9: 921–30.

    Chiyo, P.I., J.W. Wilson, E.A. Archie, et al. 2014. The influence of forage, protected areas, and mating prospects on grouping patterns of male elephants. Behavioral Ecology 25: 1494–504.

    Clark, C.J., J.R. Poulsen, R. Malonga, et al. 2009. Logging concessions can extend the conservation estate for Central African tropical forests. Conservation Biology 23: 1281–93.

    Colvin, C., A. Burns, K. Schachtschneider, et al. 2011. Coal and water futures in South Africa: The case for protecting headwaters in the Enkangala grasslands (Cape Town: WWF-SA).

    Corbeels M, R.K. Sakyi, R.F. Kühne, et al. 2014. Meta-analysis of crop responses to conservation agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. CCAFS Report No. 12 (Copenhagen: CCAFS).

    Culwick, C., and K. Bobbins. 2016. A framework for a green infrastructure planning approach in the Gauteng City-Region. GCRO Research Report 04 (Johannnesburg: GCRO).

    de Wit, M., H. van Zyl, D. Crookes, et al. 2009. Investing in Natural Assets: A business case for the environment in the City of Cape Town (Cape Town: City of Cape Town).

    Dell’Amore, C. 2012. Pictures: Elephant underpass reuniting Kenya herds. National Geographic.

    Demuzere, M., K. Orru, O. Heidrich, et al. 2014. Mitigating and adapting to climate change: Multi-functional and multi-scale assessment of green urban infrastructure. Journal of Environmental Management 146: 107–15.

    Dickman, A.J., E.A. Macdonald, and D.W. Macdonald. 2011. A review of financial instruments to pay for predator conservation and encourage human-carnivore coexistence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108: 13937–44.

    Dobson, A.P., M. Borner, A.R.E. Sinclair, et al. 2010. Road will ruin Serengeti. Nature 467: 272–73.

    Drechsel, P., L. Gyiele, D. Kunze, et al. 2001. Population density, soil nutrient depletion, and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Ecological Economics 38: 251–58.

    Dupuis-Desormeaux, M., T.N. Kaaria, M. Mwololo, et al. 2018. A ghost fence-gap: Surprising wildlife usage of an obsolete fence crossing. PeerJ 6: e5950.

    Durant, S.M., M.S. Becker, S. Creel, et al. 2015. Developing fencing policies for dryland ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology 52: 544–51.

    Edwards, D.P., S. Sloan, L. Weng, et al. 2014. Mining and the African environment. Conservation Letters 7: 302–11.

    EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2018. Green Infrastructure.

    Eshete, G., G. Tesfay, H. Bauer, et al. 2015. Community resource uses and Ethiopian wolf conservation in Mount Abune Yosef. Environmental Management 56: 684–94.

    Fa, J.E., J. Olivero, M.A. Farfán, et al. 2016. Differences between Pygmy and non-Pygmy hunting in Congo Basin forests. PLoS ONE 11: e0161703.

    Feka, N.Z., G.B. Chuyong, and G.N. Ajonina. 2009. Sustainable utilization of mangroves using improved fish-smoking systems: A management perspective from the Douala-Edea wildlife reserve, Cameroon. Tropical Conservation Science 2: 450–68.

    Fischer, J., D.J. Abson, V. Butsic, et al. 2014. Land sparing versus land sharing: Moving forward. Conservation Letters 7: 149–57.

    Ford, A.T., A.P. Clevenger, and A. Bennett. 2009. Comparison of methods of monitoring wildlife crossing-structures on highways. Journal of Wildlife Management 73: 1213–22.

    FPP (Forest Peoples Programme). 2016. FPP Statement on survival international’s complaint against WWF. FPP Press Release.

    Frick, W.F., E.F. Baerwald, J.F. Pollock, et al. 2017. Fatalities at wind turbines may threaten population viability of a migratory bat. Biological Conservation 209: 172–77.

    Gaertner, M., B.M.H. Larson, U.M. Irlich, et al. 2016. Managing invasive species in cities: A framework from Cape Town, South Africa. Landscape and Urban Planning 151: 1–9.

    Garnett, T., M. Appleby, A. Balmford, et al. 2013. Sustainable intensification in agriculture: Premises and policies. Science 341: 33–34.

    Gatere, L., J. Lehmann, S. DeGloria, et al. 2013. One size does not fit all: Conservation farming success in Africa more dependent on management than on location. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 179: 200–07.

    Gatti, R.C., S. Castaldi, J.A. Lindsell, et al. 2015. The impact of selective logging and clearcutting on forest structure, tree diversity and above-ground biomass of African tropical forests. Ecological Research 30: 119–32.

    Giller, K.E., E. Witter, M. Corbeels, et al. 2009. Conservation agriculture and smallholder farming in Africa: The heretics’ view. Field Crops Research 114: 23–34.

    Goldman, N., J.R. de Pinho, and J. Perry. 2010. Maintaining complex relations with large cats: Maasai and lions in Kenya and Tanzania. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 15: 332–46.

    Gonthier, D.J., K.K. Ennis, S. Farinas, et al. 2014. Biodiversity conservation in agriculture requires a multi-scale approach. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281: 20141358.

    Goodness, J., and P.M.L. Anderson. 2014. Local assessment of Cape Town. In: Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities: A Global Assessment, ed. by T. Elmqvist, et al. (New York: Springer).

    Gove, A.D., K. Hylander, S. Nemomisa, et al. 2008. Ethiopian coffee cultivation—Implications for bird conservation and environmental certification. Conservation Letters 1: 208–16.

    Granados, A., R.B. Weladji, and M.R. Loomis. 2012. Movement and occurrence of two elephant herds in a human-dominated landscape, the Bénoué Wildlife Conservation Area, Cameroon. Tropical Conservation Science 52: 150–62.

    Groom, R., and D. Western. 2013. Impact of land subdivision and sedentarization on wildlife in Kenya’s southern rangelands. Rangeland Ecology and Management 66: 1–9.

    Gusset, M., M.J. Swarner, L. Mponwane, et al. 2009. Human-wildlife conflict in northern Botswana: livestock predation by endangered African wild dog Lycaon pictus and other carnivores. Oryx 43: 67–72.

    Haines, G. 2016. Travellers urged to boycott Botswana over its treatment of Bushmen. Telegraph.

    Hazzah, L., S. Dolrenry, L. Naughton, et al. 2014. Efficacy of two lion conservation programs in Maasailand, Kenya. Conservation Biology 28: 851–60.

    Holdo, R.M., J.M. Fryxell, A.R.E. Sinclair, et al. 2011. Predicted impact of barriers to migration on the Serengeti wildebeest population. PLoS ONE 6: e16370.

    Hopcraft, J.G.C., S.A.R. Mduma, M. Borner, et al. 2015. Conservation and economic benefits of a road around the Serengeti. Conservation Biology 29: 932–36.

    Huijser, M.P., J.W. Duffield, A.P. Clevenger, et al. 2009. Cost-benefit analyses of mitigation measures aimed at reducing collisions with large ungulates in the United States and Canada; a decision support tool. Ecology and Society 14: 15.

    Humphries, B.D., T.R. Hill, and C.T. Downs. 2015. Landowners’ perspectives of blackbacked jackals (Canis mesomelas) on farmlands in KwaZuluNatal, South Africa. African Journal of Ecology 53: 540–49.

    ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute). 2006. Pastoralism: The surest way out of poverty in East African drylands (Nairobi: ILRI).

    Kartzinel, T.R., P.A. Chen, T.C. Coverdale, et al. 2015. DNA metabarcoding illuminates dietary niche partitioning by African large herbivores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112: 8019–24.

    Katzschner, T. 2013. Cape Flats Nature: Rethinking urban ecologies. In: Contested Ecologies: Dialogues in the South on Nature and Knowledge, ed. by L.J.F. Green (Cape Town: HSRC Press).

    Kellermann, J.L., M.D. Johnson, A.M. Stercho, et al. 2008. Ecological and economic services provided by birds on Jamaican Blue Mountain coffee farms. Conservation Biology 22: 1177–85.

    Kennedy, C., M. Zhong, and J. Corfee-Morlot. 2016. Infrastructure for China’s Ecologically Balanced Civilization. Engineering 2: 414–25.

    Kioko, J., P. Muruthi, P. Omondi, et al. 2008. The performance of electric fences as elephant barriers in Amboseli, Kenya. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 38: 52–58.

    Laurance, W.F., B.M. Croes, L. Tchignoumba, et al. 2006. Impacts of roads and hunting on central African rainforest mammals. Conservation Biology 20: 1251–61.

    Laurance, W.F., J. Sayer, and K.G. Cassman. 2014. Agricultural expansion and its impacts on tropical nature. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 29: 107–16.

    Laurance, W.F., S. Sloan, L. Weng, et al. 2015. Estimating the environmental costs of Africa’s massive “development corridors”. Current Biology 25: 3202–08.

    Law, E.A., B.A. Bryan, E. Meijaard, et al. 2017. Mixed policies give more options in multifunctional tropical forest landscapes. Journal of Applied Ecology 54: 51–60.

    Law, E.A., E. Meijaard, B.A. Bryan, et al. 2015. Better land-use allocation outperforms land sparing and land sharing approaches to conservation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biological Conservation 186: 276–86.

    Lewis, D., S.D. Bell, J. Fay, et al. 2011. Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) links biodiversity conservation with sustainable improvements in livelihoods and food production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108: 13957–62.

    Linder, J.M., and R.E. Palkovitz. 2016. The threat of industrial oil palm expansion to primates and their habitats. In: Ethnoprimatology, ed. by M. Waller (Cham: Springer).

    Lindsey, P.A., C.P. Havemann, R. Lines, et al. 2013. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: Implications for conservation on southern African private lands. PloS ONE 8: e52458.

    Maclennan S.D., R.J. Groom, D.W. Macdonald, et al. 2009. Evaluation of a compensation scheme to bring about pastoralist tolerance of lions. Biological Conservation 11: 2419–27.

    Marker, L.L., A.J. Dickman, and D.W. Macdonald. 2005. Perceived effectiveness of livestock-guarding dogs placed on Namibian farms. Rangeland Ecology and Management 58: 329–36.[0329:PEOLDP]2.0.CO;2

    Matema, S., and J.A. Andersson. 2015. Why are lions killing us? Human-wildlife conflict and social discontent in Mbire District, northern Zimbabwe. Journal of Modern African Studies 53: 93–120.

    Maxwell, S.L., R.A. Fuller, T.M. Brooks, et al. 2016. The ravages of guns, nets and bulldozers. Nature 536: 143–45.

    McGahey, D., J. Davies, and E. Barrow. 2008. Pastoralism as conservation in the Horn of Africa: Effective policies for conservation outcomes in the drylands of Eastern Africa. Annals of Arid Zones 46: 353–77.

    McManus, J.S., A.J. Dickman, D. Gaynor, et al. 2015. Dead or alive? Comparing costs and benefits of lethal and non-lethal human-wildlife conflict mitigation on livestock farms. Oryx 49: 687–95.

    Minnie, L., A. Gaylard, and G.I.H. Kerley. 2016. Compensatory lifehistory responses of a mesopredator may undermine carnivore management efforts. Journal of Applied Ecology 53: 379–87.

    Morgan, D., R. Mundry, C. Sanz, et al. 2018. African apes coexisting with logging: Comparing chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) resource needs and responses to forestry activities. Biological Conservation 218: 277–86.

    Msuha, M.J., C. Carbone, N. Pettorelli, et al. 2012. Conserving biodiversity in a changing world: Land use change and species richness in northern Tanzania. Biodiversity and Conservation 21: 2747–59.

    Murgatroyd, M., L.G. Underhill, L. Rodrigues, et al. 2016. The influence of agricultural transformation on the breeding performance of a top predator: Verreaux’s Eagles in contrasting land use areas. Condor 118: 238–52.

    Murphree, M.W. 2009. The strategic pillars of communal natural resource management: Benefit, empowerment and conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 2551–62.

    NACSO (Namibian Association of CBNRM Support Organisations). 2015. The state of community conservation in Namibia—A review of communal conservancies, community forests and other CBNRM initiatives (Windhoek: NACSO).

    Naidoo, R., L.C. Weaver, R.W. Diggle, et al. 2016. Complementary benefits of tourism and hunting to communal conservancies in Namibia. Conservation Biology 30: 628–38.

    Natural England. 2009. Natural England’s green infrastructure guidance (NE176) (York: Natural England).

    Newsome, T.M., J.A. Dellinger, C.R. Pavey, et al. 2015. The ecological effects of providing resource subsidies to predators. Global Ecology and Biogeography 24: 1–11.

    Nolte, C., A. Agrawal, K.M. Silvus, et al. 2013. Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110: 4956–5961.

    Norris, K., A. Asase, B. Collen, et al. 2010. Biodiversity in a forest-agriculture mosaic—The changing face of West African rainforests. Biological Conservation 143: 2341–50.

    Nyahunzvi, D.K. 2014. The resurgence in resource nationalism and private protected areas: Through the lens of Save Valley Conservancy’s indigenisation. Journal of Nature Conservation 22: 343–46.

    O’Farrell, P.J., P.M.L. Anderson, D. le Maitre, et al. 2012. Insights and opportunities offered by a rapid ecosystem service assessment in promoting a conservation agenda in an urban biodiversity hotspot. Ecology and Society 17: 8.

    Obiri, B.D., G.A. Bright, M.A McDonald, et al. 2007. Financial analysis of shaded cocoa in Ghana. Agroforestry Systems 71: 139–49.

    Odadi, W.O., M.K. Karachi, S.A. Abdulrazak, et al. 2011. African wild ungulates compete with or facilitate cattle depending on season. Science 333: 1753–55.

    Odefey, J., S. Detwiler, K. Rousseau, et al. 2012. Banking on green: A look at how green infrastructure can save municipalities money and provide economic benefits community-wide (Washington: American Rivers and others).

    OforiBoateng, C., W. Oduro, A. Hillers, et al. 2013. Differences in the effects of selective logging on amphibian assemblages in three west African forest types. Biotropica 45: 94–101.

    Ogada, D., A. Botha, and P. Shaw. 2015. Ivory poachers and poison: Drivers of Africa’s declining vulture populations. Oryx: 1–4.

    Packer, C., D. Ikanda, B. Kissui, et al. 2005. Lion attacks on humans in Tanzania — understanding the timing and distribution of attacks on rural communities will help to prevent them. Nature 436: 927–28.

    Parker G.E., F.V. Osborn, R.E. Hoare, et al. 2007. Human-elephant conflict mitigation: A training course for community-based approaches in Africa (Livingstone: Elephant Pepper Development Trust; Nairobi: IUCN/SSC AfESG).

    Parker, G.E., and F.V. Osborn. 2006. Investigating the potential for chilli Capsicum spp. to reduce human-wildlife conflict in Zimbabwe. Oryx 40: 343–46.

    Pooley, S., J.A. Mendelsohn, and E.J. Milner-Gulland. 2014. Hunting down the chimera of multiple disciplinarity in conservation science. Conservation Biology 28: 22–32.

    Poulsen, J.R., C.J. Clark, G. Mavah, et al. 2009. Bushmeat supply and consumption in a tropical logging concession in northern Congo. Conservation Biology 23: 1597–608.

    Pretty, J., C. Toulmin, and S. Williams. 2011. Sustainable intensification in African agriculture. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 9: 5–24.

    Rai, N.D., and K.S. Bawa. 2013. Inserting politics and history in conservation. Conservation Biology 27: 425–28.

    Rao, M.R., M.C. Palada, and B.N. Becker. 2004. Medicinal and aromatic plants in agroforestry systems. Afroforestry Systems 61: 107–22.

    Roberts, P., C.O. Hunt, M. Arroyo-Kalin, et al. 2017. The deep human prehistory of global tropical forests and its relevance for modern conservation. Nature Plants 3: 17093.

    Roe, D., F. Nelson, and C. Sandbrook. 2009. Community Management of Natural Resources in Africa: Impacts, Experiences and Future Directions. Natural Resource Issues 18 (London: IIED).

    Rosenzweig, M.L. 2003. Reconciliation ecology and the future of species diversity. Oryx 37: 194–205.

    Rushworth, I., and S. Krüger. 2014. Wind farms threaten southern Africa’s cliff-nesting vultures. Ostrich 8: 13–23.

    Rust, N.A., T.M. WhitehouseTedd, and D.C. MacMillan. 2013. Perceived efficacy of livestockguarding dogs in South Africa: Implications for cheetah conservation. Wildlife Society Bulletin 37: 690–97.

    Scheijen, C.P.J., S.A. Richards, J. Smit, et al., 2019. Efficacy of beehive fences as barriers to African elephants: A case study in Tanzania. Oryx 52: 92–99.

    Schiess-Meier, M., S. Ramsauer, T. Gabanapelo, et al. 2007. Livestock predation—Insights from problem animal control registers in Botswana. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 1267–74.

    Seiler, N., and M.M. Robbins. 2015. Factors influencing ranging on community land and crop raiding by mountain gorillas. Animal Conservation 19: 176–88.

    Şekercioğlu, C.H. 2002. Effects of forestry practices on vegetation structure and bird community of Kibale National Park, Uganda. Biological Conservation 107: 229–40.

    Şekercioğlu, C.H. 2012. Bird functional diversity and ecosystem services in tropical forests, agroforests and agricultural areas. Journal of Ornithology 153: 153–61.

    Seto, K.C., M. Fragkias, B. Günerapl, et al. 2011. A meta-analysis of global urban land expansion. PloS ONE 6: e23777.

    Shaheed, F. 2016. Report of the Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights on her visit to Botswana (New York: UNHRC).

    Silber, G.K., A.S.M. Vanderlaan, A.T. Arceredillo, et al. 2012. The role of the International Maritime Organization in reducing vessel threat to whales: Process, options, action and effectiveness. Marine Policy 36: 1221–33.

    Sims-Castley, R., G.I. Kerley, B. Geach, et al. 2005. Socio-economic significance of ecotourism-based private game reserves in South Africa’s Eastern Cape Province. Parks 15: 6–18.

    Sixtus, M. 2018. Indigenous communities at risk as Chinese rubber firm uses land. Al Jazeera

    Sloan, S., B. Bertzky, and W.F. Laurance. 2017. African development corridors intersect key protected areas. African Journal of Ecology 55: 731–37.

    Smith Dumont, E., G.M. Gnahoua, L. Ohouo, et al. 2014. Farmers in Côte d’Ivoire value integrating tree diversity in cocoa for the provision of ecosystem services. Agroforestry Systems 88: 1047–66.

    Smith, D. 2014. Tanzania accused of backtracking over sale of Masai’s ancestral land. Guardian.

    Stevenson, J.R., N. Villoria, D. Byerlee, et al. 2013. Green Revolution research saved an estimated 18 to 27 million hectares from being brought into agricultural production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110: 8363–68.

    Stokes, E.J., S. Strindberg, P.C. Bakabana, et al. 2010. Monitoring great ape and elephant abundance at large spatial scales: Measuring effectiveness of a conservation landscape. PLoS ONE 4: e10294.

    Störmer, N., L.C. Weaver, G. Stuart-Hill, et al. 2019. Investigating the effects of community-based conservation on attitudes towards wildlife in Namibia. Biological Conservation 233: 193–200.

    Tabo, R, A. Bationo, B. Amadou, et al. 2011. Fertilizer microdosing and “Warrantage” or inventory credit system to improve food security and farmers’ income in West Africa. In: Innovations as Key to the Green Revolution in Africa, ed. by A. Bationo, et al. (Dordrecht: Springer).

    Taylor, R. 2009. Community based natural resources management in Zimbabwe: the experience of CAMPFIRE. Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 2563–83.

    Thibault, M., and S. Blaney. 2003. The oil industry as an underlying factor in the bushmeat crisis in Central Africa. Conservation Biology 17: 1807–13.

    Tscharntke, T., Y. Clough, S.A. Bhagwat, et al. 2011. Multifunctional shadetree management in tropical agroforestry landscapes—a review. Journal of Applied Ecology 48: 619–29.

    Tuqa, J.H., P. Funston, C. Musyoki, et al. 2014. Impact of severe climate variability on lion home range and movement patterns in the Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya. Global Ecology and Conservation 2: 1–10.

    UN-REDD. 2013. Guidelines on free, prior, and informed consent (Geneva: UN-REDD).

    Vågen, T.-G., R. Lal, and B.R. Singh. 2005. Soil carbon sequestration in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. Land Degradation and Development 16: 53–71.

    Western, D., R. Groom, and J. Worden. 2009b. The impact of subdivision and sedentarization of pastoral lands on wildlife in an African savanna ecosystem. Biological Conservation 142: 2538–46.

    Western, D., S. Russell, and I. Cuthill. 2009a. The status of wildlife in protected areas compared to non-protected areas of Kenya. PLoS One 4: e6140.

    Woodborne, S., K.D.A. Huchzermeyer, D. Govender, Det al. 2012. Ecosystem change and the Olifants River crocodile mass mortality events. Ecosphere 3: 1–17.

    Woodroffe, R. 2011 Demography of a recovering African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) population. Journal of Mammalogy 92: 305–15.

    Woodroffe, R., and L.G. Frank. 2005. Lethal control of African lions (Panthera leo): Local and regional population impacts. Animal Conservation 8: 91–98.

    Young, T.P., T.M. Palmer, and M.E. Gadd. 2005. Competition and compensation among cattle, zebras, and elephants in a semi-arid savanna in Laikipia, Kenya. Biological Conservation 112: 251–59.

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    14.8: Bibliography is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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