- Obtain a map of your region’s protected areas (e.g. nature reserves and national parks) and multiple-use managed areas (e.g. hunting and logging concessions). (https://protectedplanet.net is a good source.) If you could designate an additional protected area, where would it be? What shape would your protected area be? What would the management goals be for these additional areas? Explain all your answers.
- Think about a protected area that you have visited. What is the main goal of this protected area? Do you think park management is succeeding in the goal? What are they doing particularly well? What could they do to manage the protected area better?
- Think of a protected area near you that safeguards an aquatic environment, such as a beach, estuary, or lake. What unique challenges do you think the people managing that protected area face that managers of a terrestrial protected area do not face?
- Many countries are developing protected areas that cross international borders. What are the main goals of these parks? Are they achieving their goals? What are the main challenges?
- How can national parks continue to function optimally in countries where the central governments have largely ceased to function, and where corruption is rampant?
de Vos, A., H.S. Clements, D. Biggs, et al. 2019. The dynamics of proclaimed privately protected areas in South Africa over 83 years. Conservation Letters 12: e12644. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12644 Tracking the growth of privately protected areas in South Africa as a function of national legislation.
Ferro, P.J., M.M. Hanauer, and K.R.E. Sims. 2011. Conditions associated with protected area success in conservation and poverty reduction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108: 13913–18. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011529108 Protected areas can provide many benefits for poor people living nearby.
Fox, H.E., M.B. Mascia, X. Basurto, et al. 2012. Reexamining the science of marine protected areas: Linking knowledge to action. Conservation Letters 5: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00207.x Biological, social, and policy issues are all important in effective marine protected areas.
Gross, J.E., S. Woodley, L.A. Welling, et al. 2016. Adapting to Climate Change: Guidance for Protected Area Managers and Planners (Gland: IUCN). https://portals.iucn.org/library/node/46685 Best practices guidelines for managing protected areas under climate change.
Ihwagi, F.W., T. Wang, G. Wittemyer, et al. 2015. Using poaching levels and elephant distribution to assess the conservation efficacy of private, communal and government land in northern Kenya. PLoS ONE 10: e0139079. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139079 A comparison of different types of protected areas in protecting biodiversity
Knight, A.T., A. Driver, R.M. Cowling, et al. 2006. Designing systematic conservation assessments that promote effective implementation: Best practice from South Africa. Conservation Biology 20: 739–50. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00452.x An overview of eight systematic conservation plans from design to implementation.
Mascia, M.B., and S. Pallier. 2011. Protected areas downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD) and its conservation implications. Conservation Letters 4: 9–20. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00147.x In many areas of the world, the official protection of national parks and other conservation areas is being withdrawn.
Mbaiwa, J.E., and A.L. Stronza. 2011. Changes in resident attitudes towards tourism development and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Environmental Management 92: 1950–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.03.009 Local people being positive about conservation.
Olds, A.D., R.M. Connolly, K.A. Pitt, et al. 2012. Habitat connectivity improves reserve performance. Conservation Letters 5: 56–63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00204.x Networks of protected areas benefit from connectivity.
Survival International. 2014. Parks Need People (London: Survival International). https://assets.survivalinternational.org/documents/1324/parksneedpeoples-report.pdf Integrating cultural protection with biodiversity conservation.