Nonmaterial contributions from nature, also called cultural services, include the subjective and psychological aspects of nature that influence our perceptions about quality of life. These contributions can be divided into three subcategories: inspiration and learning support, supporting psychological and physical experiences, and supporting individual and group identities.
Inspiration and learning support
Nature has inspired artists and writers throughout history. Consequently, many books, television programmes, movies, and websites produced for entertainment purposes are based on natural themes. This infusion of nature into popular culture is worth billions of dollars per year. To take one example, the 1994 Disney blockbuster The Lion King, based on the lives of a variety of African savannah animals, generated revenues estimated at just under US $1 billion from theatre attendances alone. It was so successful that three movie sequels, an animated television series, and several video games and books followed. A musical based on The Lion King movie plot continues to be a top-earning title in box-office history for both stage productions and films.
Movies featuring stunning natural landscapes and charismatic wildlife often increase the desire of moviegoers to visit natural areas where they can see these landscapes and animals first-hand. But it can also raise awareness of environmental issues in new audiences. While many documentaries are created with this purpose in mind, such benefits can also extend to blockbuster movies meant for broader audiences (Silk et al., 2018). For example, Disney’s Happy Feet (2006) highlighted the threat of overfishing and plastic pollution to penguins; Avatar (2009) raised awareness of habitat loss and overharvesting; and The Jungle Book (2016) exposed audiences to the plight of pangolins. Such exposure can even lead to environmentally conscious behavioural changes. For example, moviegoers were willing to donate 50% more money to climate mitigation after watching the apocalyptic movie The Day After Tomorrow (2004) (Balmford et al., 2004). Perhaps, in part, due to the influence of environmentally-orientated movies, an increasing number of movie stars (and other celebrities) have started using their stardom as a platform from where they promote biodiversity conservation efforts in Africa (Duthie et al. 2017; see also https://wildfor.life).
Scientists and engineers often seek inspiration from nature for new technologies or to solve innovation challenges.
Scientists and engineers also sometimes turn to nature to seek inspiration for new technologies or to solve innovation challenges. For example, the water-vapor collecting capacity of the racing stripe darkling beetle (Stenocara gracilipes) from the Namib Desert in Namibia (Figure 4.7) inspired engineers who developed self-filling water bottles (Clark, 2012), irrigation systems to overcome drought conditions (Scott, 2011), fog-free windows and mirrors (Parker and Lawrence, 2011), and methods for controlling condensation and frost on aircraft surfaces (Boreyko et al., 2016). While these and other scientific endeavours, collectively known as biomimicry, provide many social and economic benefits, their primary value comes from new knowledge, improved education, and enriched human experiences.
Supporting psychological and physical experiences
While the economic benefits gained from nature incentivises biodiversity protection, many people believe that the aesthetic values of nature provide an even greater incentive for conservation. This principle rests on the fact that nearly everyone enjoys wildlife and landscapes aesthetically. Even city-dwellers who are superficially removed from nature find a sense of relief and well-being when they have opportunities to come in close contact with the natural world. But what if dragonflies and butterflies disappeared? What if our favourite sports team’s mascot ceased to exist in nature? What if there were no more forests filled with bird flocks or monkey troops?
The intangible but desirable aesthetic values people attach to certain aspects of nature are known as amenity values. Amenity values are becoming increasingly important in many local and national economies throughout Africa, in the form ecotourism. At any one time, there are millions of tourists traveling and spending money across Africa to see particular species or to experience unique ecosystems. This includes scuba divers approaching a coral reef (Figure 4.8), birdwatchers visiting a rare species’ stakeout, and people on a safari to view the many flagship species for which Africa’s savannahs are so well known. Ecotourism has long been a major industry in southern and East Africa. For example, ecotourism generated over US $1 billion in annual revenue in the Cape Floristic Region more than a decade ago (Turpie et al., 2003), and has accounted for over 15% of Kenya’s gross domestic product (GDP) at times (WWF and BSI, 2006). Ecotourism is also becoming increasingly important in other parts of Africa. For example, since overcoming periods of social unrest, Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda have created profitable local industries charging tourists high fees to visit habituated populations of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei, EN). Also, in South Africa, some bird guides earn an average of US $362 per month by showing tourists the unique birds their local area has to offer (Biggs et al., 2011).
In recent years, volunteer-based ecotourism has emerged as a lucrative industry that combines ecotourism with learning opportunities. These organisations offer aspiring conservationists and citizen scientists hands-on experience while bringing financial and other logistical support to rural and protected areas. Many wildlife sanctuaries and conservation NGOs also offer volunteer opportunities and field courses that combine conservation action with local community outreach and education programmes. The research done by professional scientists and citizen science volunteers can be used in locally-relevant educational materials. Biological field stations (Section 13.1.5) often host these activities; the stations can also provide training and jobs for local community members.
The revenue and jobs generated by ecotourism provides a strong and immediate justification to protect biodiversity and restore areas that have been degraded.
The revenue and jobs generated by ecotourism provides a strong and immediate justification to protect areas rich with biodiversity or to restore areas that have been degraded. Ecotourism can even be integrated directly in plans for future development, protection, and restoration. One such example is integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs, Section 14.3), which provide models for how empowered rural communities can successfully establish accommodation, develop expertise in nature guiding, and sell local handicrafts at curio stores to obtain multiple stable income streams. The revenue obtained from ecotourism also allows local people to move away from unsustainable hunting, fishing, or grazing practices towards lifestyles that can be maintained in the long term.
Still, many of Africa’s ecotourism resources remain under-utilised. To use one example, only a few locations in Africa cater to people who enjoy the thrill of swimming with sharks in their natural habitat. Beyond removing fear and instilling a healthy respect for sharks, this industry also plays an important role in conservation by showing how living sharks bring greater economic benefit than a once-off catch. For example, shark diving at just one location in South Africa is estimated at US $4.4 million annually (Hara et al., 2003); similar industries in the Maldives (Cagua et al., 2014) and Palau (Vianna et al., 2012) generate even more revenue. Presenting unique recreational experiences and a growing global ecotourism sector, more and more African countries will hopefully explore these and other opportunities soon. It is worth noting that the long-term effects of shark diving operations are largely unknown, particularly as it relates to possible behavioural changes from using bait to attract sharks to people, and an active area of current research (Gallagher and Huveneers, 2018).
Although ecotourism can provide many valuable conservation and economic benefits (Thiel et al., 2014), care must always be taken that these activities abide by accepted ethical standards (Hayward et al., 2012). It is also worth remembering that wildlife ecotourism is often geared towards wealthy western markets, making it prohibitively costly to the people who live near facilities, and are most vulnerable to factors such as human-wildlife conflict. As such, it is important to consider what portion of the generated funds are invested locally versus reserved to enrich well-compensated shareholders in the far-away capital. Are local people given opportunities to further their training and education, and to advance their careers within ecotourism organisations? Unfortunately, in many areas of Africa, local people continue to receive only the smallest percentage of money spent by tourists. Similarly, even though national parks themselves may receive large numbers of foreign visitors, governments continue to use only a small percentage of the generated funds on park management (Lindsey et al., 2014; Balmford et al., 2015).
Supporting individual and group identities
Many people care deeply about biodiversity. The thought of a charismatic animal or a special landscape (Figure 4.9) may elicit a strong emotional response, which leads to a desire to protect plants, animals, and natural places. For some people, this desire is associated with a hope to someday see those unique species or landscapes in person. Others do not expect or even desire to see these species and landscape themselves, yet they value their existence. In either case, these individuals recognize the existence values of wildlife and nature—the benefit people receive from simply knowing that an ecosystem or species exists. Bequest values (also known as beneficiary values) is a component of existence values, defined as the perceived benefit people receive from preserving a natural resource or species for future generations.
The desire to ensure the protection of biodiversity has prompted a wide range of people to establish, join, or otherwise contribute to conservation organisations. For many people involved in these organisations, their participation stems from the ethical premise that wildlife are equal to human life, and that biodiversity conservation offers genuine and long-lasting well-being. This environmental philosophy is often described as deep ecology, the ethical premise that species and biodiversity have a right to exist independent of their possible benefits to humans, and that humans have an inherent responsibility to protect species and biodiversity (see also Section 1.4). Deep ecology holds that social structures (including politics, economics, technology, and ideology) must change radically to reduce the destruction of Earth’s biodiversity and to enhance people’s quality of life. It emphasises and prioritises the natural environment, aesthetics, religion, and culture, rather than material consumption. Although the ethical appreciation of biodiversity is similar in deep ecology and conservation biology, deep ecology includes broader goals for personal, social, and political change.
Biodiversity forms the basis of spiritual, celebratory, and other social-cohesion experiences for many people.
Biodiversity also forms the basis of spiritual, celebratory, and other social-cohesion experiences for many people. It ensures people experience a sense of place and belonging, reminds them of childhood experiences, and gives a sense of connection when they experience natural sights, sounds and smells. This is especially true for Africans, many of whom attach deeply-held spiritual, cultural, and symbolic values to the environment. Even the money of most, perhaps all, African countries features aspects of nature, as if to add a little extra (if only symbolic) value to those coins and bills. All these factors play a major role in people’s sense of who we are—our identity.