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Biology LibreTexts

5: Molecular Interactions, Thermodynamics & Reaction Coupling

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  • While the diversity of organisms and the unique properties of each individual organism are the products of evolutionary processes, initiated billions of years ago, it is equally important to recognize that all biological systems and processes, from growth and cell division to thoughts and feelings, obey the rules of chemistry and physics, and in particular the laws of thermodynamics.

    Contributors and Attributions

    • Michael W. Klymkowsky (University of Colorado Boulder) and Melanie M. Cooper (Michigan State University) with significant contributions by Emina Begovic & some editorial assistance of Rebecca Klymkowsky.