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15B: Regulation of Glucose Metabolism

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    • 15.1: Insulin Signaling in the Liver
    • 15.2: Glycogenesis
      The process of forming glycogen is called glycogenesis and it requires the activity of six enzymes. Some of these, we have already discussed including the hexokinase that phosphorylates the 6'-OH of glucose and phosphoglucomutase that converts glucose-6-phosphate to the glucose-1-phosphate isomer. In this section, we will discuss the remaining four enzymes and their role in glycogen biosynthesis. They are Glycogen Synthase, UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase, Glycogenin, & Glycogen Branching Enzyme.
    • 15.3: Coordinated Regulation of Glycogen Synthesis and Breakdown
    • 15.3 Glucagon and Epinephrine Signaling
    • 15.4: Glycogenolysis
      In the previous section, you learned that glucagon signaling down regulates glycogen synthesis. Glucagon signaling also up regulates glycogen breakdown, called glycogenolysis. In this section, we will take a look at the enzymes involved with glycogen breakdown. Only two enzymes are required for the breakdown of glycogen, the glycogen phosphorylase enzyme, and the glycogen debranching enzyme.
    • 15.5: Regulation of Glycolysis
      There are three major enzymatic control points within the glycolytic pathway: the hexokinase, the phosphofructokinase, and the pyruvate kinase transitions. Key drivers for regulating the pathway are energy demand within the cell as determined by local indicators such as ATP and AMP, as well as energy demand within the organism as a whole, which can be influenced by hormone signaling pathways. We will also see that the regulation of the pathway can vary depending on cell type and cellular needs.

    15B: Regulation of Glucose Metabolism is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Henry Jakubowski.

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