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Biology LibreTexts

Seed Plants Lab

  • Page ID
    7687
  • Learning Objectives

    • Define the terms (meanings of the names) angiosperm and gymnosperm
    • State what type of cells create eggs and what type of cells create sperm in gymnosperms and angiosperms
    • Describe the general characteristics seed plants.
    • Name the phyla discussed in the lab and give an example of a plant from each
    • Recognize and identify plant specimens viewed in the lab, both slides and live samples
    • Understand the basic gymnosperm and angiosperm life cycle
    • Recognize the difference between a male and female pine cone
    • Explain the seed plant alteration of generations including sporophyte and gametophyte structures
    • Identify and know the function of the microscopes and the megaspores
    • Identify the flower parts and which structures and male and female
    • Explain and recognize the difference between a monocot and a eudicot flower
    • Distinguish between the different types of fruits and give an example of each type

    Seed Plants Lab from Lumen Learning

    Download a PDF of the lab to print.

    Procedure

    1. Access the Seed plant lab.
    2. Gymnosperms
      1. Name the four subgroups within gymnosperms.
      2. We will focus on conifers. Observe the conifer leaf samples available.
        1. How does the needle-like leaf benefit the conifer?
      3. Reproduction in Pines: As indicated on the website, draw a simple pine life cycle in the space on the next page. Be sure to include the terms egg, embryo, fertilization, megaspore, microscope, gametophyte, sporophyte, meiosis, mitosis, and pollen. Use this website to get you started.
      4. Observe the pine cones on display. Are pine cones haploid or diploid?
      5. Are male or female pine cones larger?
      6. View the slide of the pollen (male) pine cone cross section.
        1. Can you find the microscopes on the slide?
        2. Are microscopes haploid or diploid?
        3. What process do microscopes undergo to form pollen grains?
        4. Can you find pollen grains on the slide?
        5. Use the space on the next page to draw what you observed under the microscope.
      7. View the slide of the seed (female) pine cone cross section.
        1. Can you find the megaspores on the slide?
        2. Are megaspores haploid or diploid?
        3. What process do megaspores undergo to form the egg or ovule?
        4. Can you find the egg on the slide?
        5. Is the tissue surrounding the egg haploid or diploid?
        6. Once the egg is fertilized what structure will form?
        7. Use the space below to draw what you observed under the microscope.
      8. View the pine seeds on display
        1. Are the seeds haploid or diploid?
        2. How will the seeds be dispersed through the environment?
        3. What cell division process will the seeds undergo to create a new pine tree?
    3. Angiosperms
      1. As indicated on the website, draw a simple angiosperm life cycle in the space below. Be sure to include the terms egg, embryo, fertilization, megaspore, microscope, gametophyte, sporophyte, meiosis, mitosis, and pollen. Use this website to get you started: http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/angiosperm.html
      2. Use the flower model to identify the different structures.
        1. Collectively, the male flower parts are called the ___________________.
        2. Collectively, the female flower parts are called the __________________.
        3. Use the table below to describe the function of each flower part and if it is male, female, or neither.
          Flower structure Function Male/Female/Neither
          Anther
          Filament
          Stigma
          Style
          Ovary
          Petal
          Sepals
      3. Dissect the live flower. Start with the outside (sepals, petals) and work your way in. Identify each structure as you dissect the flower.
        1. How many petals does the flower have?
        2. Is the flower a monocot or a eudicot? What characteristic did you use to determine?
        3. Once you dissect the flower, dispose of the flower parts. You do not have to cut into the ovary or the anther as indicated on the website.
      4. View the slide of the lily mature female gametophyte.
        1. Can you locate the egg?
        2. Is the egg haploid or diploid?
        3. What type of cell underwent mitosis to create the egg?
        4. Can you locate the polar nuclei?
        5. Is the ovary (tissue surrounding the egg) haploid or diploid?
        6. Use the space below to draw what you observed under the microscope.
      5. View the slide of the lily anther cross section.
        1. Can you locate the pollen grains?
        2. Is the pollen haploid or diploid?
        3. What cell type underwent mitosis to create the pollen?
        4. Is the anther (tissue surrounding the pollen) haploid or diploid?
        5. Use the space below to draw what you observed under the microscope.
      6. View the slide of the lily pollen grains.
        1. How many cells are held within a single pollen grain?
        2. Use the space below to draw what you observed under the microscope.
      7. Skip the slide of germinated pollen. That slide is not available in the lab.
      8. Skip the slide of the lily developing embryo. It is not available in the lab.
      9. Skip the slide of the Capsella embryo, both early and mature embryo. These slides are not available in the lab.
      10. Although there is not a live bean seed available, please view the preserved bean seed.
        1. Is the seed haploid or diploid?
        2. How many cotyledons does the bean seed have?
        3. Is the bean a monocot or a eudicot?
      11. Although there is not a live corn seed available, please view the preserved corn seed.
        1. How many cotyledons does the corn seed have?
        2. Is the corn a monocot or a eudicot?
        3. What is the function of the endosperm tissue?
      12. Skip over the recently germinated bean and corn plants.
      13. Fruits. There will be several fruit examples available in the lab. They may be different than the ones described on the website. Use a table to discuss the fruits you view.
        Name of fruit Simple, Aggregate, or Multiple Dry or fleshy

    Review Questions

    Answer the review questions below.

    1. What does gymnosperm mean?
    2. What group of gymnosperm plants is the largest?
    3. What type of spore is used for male reproduction in seed plants?
    4. Through mitosis, the male spore develops into what structure?
    5. What type of spore is used for female reproduction in seed plants?
    6. Through mitosis, the female spore develops into what structure?
    7. What does angiosperm mean?
    8. What structures of the flower are female?
    9. What structures of the flower are male?
    10. What is the function of the petals of the flower?
    11. The process of ___________________ occurs in the flower anther to create haploid ________________ followed by mitosis to create __________________.
    12. The process of __________________ occurs in the flower ovary to create the haploid ___________________ followed by mitosis to create the ______________ and the n+n ______________________.
    13. State one difference between monocots and eudicots.
    14. Explain how angiosperms undergo a double fertilization.
    15. What part of the flower develops into a fruit?
    16. How is a simple fruit different from a complex fruit?
    17. Give an example of a fleshy fruit

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