Skip to main content
Biology LibreTexts

Binding and Control of Gene Transcription

One of the central questions of modern biology is what controls gene expression. As we have previously described, genes must be "turned on" at the right time, in the right cell. To a first approximation, all the cells in an organism contain the same DNA (with the exception of germ cells and immune cells). Cell type is determined by what genes are expressed at a given time. Likewise, cells can change (differentiate) into different types of cells by altering the expression of genes. The central dogma of biology describes how genes are first transcribed to messenger RNA (mRNA), and then the mRNA is translated into a corresponding protein sequence.

References

  1. Meijsing, S. et al. DNA Binding Site Sequence Directs Glucorticoid Receptor Structure and Activity. Science 324, 407 (2009) pdf
  2. Choudhary, C. et al. Lysine Acetylation Targets Protein Complexes and Co-Regulates Major Cellular Functions. Science 325, 834 (2009) pdf
  3. Wang, Bei et al. Redefining the p53 response element. PNAS 106, 14373 (2009) pdf
  4. Rhos, R. et al. The role of DNA shape in Protein-DNA recognition. Nature 461, 1248 (2009) pdf
  5. Geurts, A. M. et. al. Knockout Rats via Embryo Microinjection of Zinc-Finger Nucleases. Science. 325, p 433 (2009) pdf
  6. McGowan, P. et al. Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nature Neuroscience 12, 342 (2009) pdf
  7. Rubartelli, A & Lotze, M. Inside, outside, upside down: damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) and redox. Trends in Immunology. 28, 431 (2007) doi:10.1016/j.it.2007.08.004 pdf
  8. Jensen, L. and Bork, P. Not Comparable, but Complementary. Science 322, 56 (2008)
  9. Yu, H et al. High-Quality Binary Protein Interaction Map of the Yeast Interactome Network. Science 322, 104 (2008) pdf
  10. Rigaut, G. et al. A generic protein purification method for protein complex characterization and proteome exploration. Nature Biotechnology 17, 1030 (1999) pdf
  11. Tarassov, K. et al. Science 320, 1465 (2008) pdf
  12. Couzin, J. Erasing MicroRNAs Reveals Their Powerful Punch. Science, 316, 530 (2007). pdf
  13. Jeffery P. Demuth, Tijl De Bie, Jason E. Stajich, Nello Cristianini, Matthew W. Hahn. The Evolution of Mammalian Gene Families
  14. Brideau, N. et al. Two Dobzhansky-Muller Genes Interact to Cause Hybrid Lethality in Drosophila.  314,1292 (2006) pdf
  15. Segal, E. et al. A genomic code for nucleosome positioning. Nature. 442, 772 (2006) pdf
  16. Xiaoxia Wang et al.  PLoS Biology, issue 3 (2006).
  17. The Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium. Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome. Nature. 437, 69 (2005); Li W. H. & Saunders, M. The Chimpanzee and Us. Nature 437, 50 (2005).
  18. Garza, M. and Hampton, R. Sterol Sensor comes up for air. Nature 435, 37 (2005) pdf
  19. Rando, O et al. Genome-Scale Identification of Nucleosome Positions in S. cerevisiae.  Science 309, 626-630, (2005) pdf
  20. Urnov, F.D. et al. Highly efficient endogenous human gene correction using designed zinc-finger nucleases. Nature 435, 646 (2005) pdf
  21. The International Chimpanzee Chromosome 22 Consortium. DNA sequence and comparative analysis of chimpanzee chromosome 22. Nature 429, 382 (2004) pdf
  22. Levine, M. & Tjian, R. Transcription regulation and animal diversity. Nature. 424, pg 147 (2003) pdf
  23. Kamath. R. et al. Systematic functional analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome using RNAi. Nature. 421, pg 231 (2003). pdf
  24. Winkler. W et al. Thiamine derivative bind messenger RNAs directly to regulate bacterial gene expression. Nature, 419, pg 852, 890 (2002) pdf
  25. Enard et al. Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language. Nature 418, pg 869 (2002) pdf
  26. Angata et al. A second uniquely human mutation affecting sialic acid biology. J. Biol. Chem. 276, pg 40282 (2001) pdf
  27. Dobrosotskaya et al. Regulation of SREBP Processing and Membrane Lipid Production by Phospholipids in Drosophila. Science. 296, pg 879 (2002) pdf
  28. Nohturfft, A. and Losick, R. Fats, Flies, and Palmitate. Science. 296, pg 857 (2002) pdf
  29. Plasterk, R. RNA Silencing: The Genome's Immune System. Science. 296, pg 1263 (2002) pdf
  30. Dennis, C. The Brave New World of RNA. Nature. 418, pg 122 (2002) pdf
  31. Hannon, G. RNA Interference. Nature. 418, pg 245 (2002) pdf
  32. Munshi et al. Enhancers and Gene Transcription. 293, pg 1054, 1133 (2001)
  33. Yanofsky et al. Turning Gene Regulation on its Head. (About W Operon). Science. 293 pg 2018 (2001)
  34. Gene Expression in human and chimp brains. Science. 292, pg 44 (2001) pdf
  35. Reprograming X Inactivation (one of two X chromosomes in female cell must be silenced) Science. 290 pg 1518 (2000)
  36. Wei et al. One Man's Food (about regulation of cyto P450) expression. Nature. 407 pg 852, 920 (2000)
  37. Pham and SauerNew Insight into an old modification (Tx. factor TFIID chemically modifies a histone) Science. 289. pg 2290, 2357 (2000)
  38. Lemon et al. Specifying Transcription. Nature. 414. pg 858, 924 (2001)
  39. Nakayama et al. The Histone modification circus. (how Histone modification regulates gene silencing) Science. 292, pg 64 (2001)
  40. Croix et al. Genes Expressed in Human Tumor Endothelium. Science. 289, pg 1197 (2000)
  41. de Urquiza et al. Docosahexaenoic Acid, a ligand for the retinoid X receptor in mouse brain. (ligand-activated txn factor through orphan receptor). Science. 290. pg 2140 (2000) pdf
  42. Jaime F. Martínez-García, Enamul Huq, and Peter H. Quail. Direct Targeting of Light Signals to a Promoter Element-Bound Transcription Factor. Science 288, pg 859 (2001) pdf
  43. Nagatani, A. Lighting Up the Nucleus. Science, 288, pg 821, 2000) 
  44. A silence that speaks volumes. (gene silencing by RNA interference) Nature, 404, pg 804 (2000)
  45. Xho et al. How do X chromosomes set boundaries. (Females have 2 X chromosomes, males one. Do keep gene dosage comparable, one X chromosome must be inactivated in female clles. How is that done? They found a protein - trans-acting factor - that key). Science. 295. pg 287, 345 (2002)
  46. Jacobs and Khorasanizadeh. Structure of HP1 Chromodomain Bound to a Lysine 9-methylated Histone H3 tail. Science. 295. pg 2080 (2002) pdf